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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1
3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport

Module 1: Cells

1.1.1 Cell Structure

Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission
electron microscope and a scanning electron microscope;

Transmission Electron Scanning…

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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1
(e) describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an electron
microscope and be able to recognise the following structures: nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope,
rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria,
lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma (cell surface) membrane,…

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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1


5. Chloroplast Yes No photosynthesis


6. Rough endoplasmic
Yes Yes protein synthesis
reticulum

7. Smooth endoplasmic
Yes Yes synthesis of lipids
reticulum

modification and packaging of
8. Golgi apparatus Yes Yes
proteins


9. Centriole Yes Yes organises spindle during mitosis


10. Flagella Yes Yes…

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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1
(i) compare and contrast, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs, the structure of
prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells;
Prokaryotic Cell




There may also be lipid or
glycogen granules within
the cell, so look out for
those!




(for Eukaryotic cell, see part (e))…

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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1
Cytoplasm
- subdivided
- the protoplasm is the name for all of the materials inside the cell membrane
- the cytoplasm is the name for all the material inside the membrane but not the
nucleus
- i.e. all the ground materials including organelles are…

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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1
- this is thicker than the primary wall
- many additional layers are deposited outside the primary wall
- in each layer of the secondary wall, the fibrils run mainly in the same direction
- in older cells, more layers are laid down, but…

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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1


Golgi apparatus (a.k.a. Golgi body)
- series of complex tubules
- flattened cisternae
- present in cells which actively produce enzymes
- modify and package proteins produced by ribosomes
- e.g. carbohydrates are added to proteins in the golgi body ­ to become
glycoproteins,…

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AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1

ribosomal

Ribosomes
- composed of RNA (rRNA)
- each consists of 3 sub-units ­ one slightly larger
than the other ("cottage loaf" shape)
- assembles amino acids into proteins
- operates in conjunction with mRNA
- bound to endoplasmic reticulum
- often several ribosomes…

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