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A2 F214 Respiration Revision Notes

Active Transport - Moving ions and molecules across a membrane against a concentration gradient e.g. Na+/K+ pump.
Activation of Chemicals - E.g. glucose is phosphorylated at the beginning of respiration to make the molecule unstable and
easier to break down.
Anabolic Reaction - Synthetic reactions…

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ATP is constantly being recycled between ADP + Pi ATP. When ADP has Pi added to it the bond between them is able to
store 30.6 KJ of energy, when the bond is broken ATP ADP + Pi this energy is released to do `work'.
Energy is released immediately into…

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respiration. The hydrogen atoms are combined with coenzymes such as NAD. These carry the hydrogen atoms, which can
later be split into hydrogen ions and electrons, to the inner mitochondrial membranes. Here they will be involved in the
process of oxidative phosphorylation, which produces a lot of ATP. Delivery of…

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3. Hexose Bisphosphate (6C) then splits into two molecules of Triose phosphate (3C).
4. In a series of reactions, each molecule of triose phosphate is converted into Pyruvate or pyruvic acid (3C).
5. During this series of reactions, enough energy is released to make 4 ATP molecules per triose phosphate.…

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The reduced NAD is used in the final stages of aerobic respiration ­ Oxidative Phosphorylation.
The CO2 is given off as a waste gas.

2 Pyruvate + 2 NAD+ + 2 CoA 2 CO2 + 2 Reduced NAD + 2 Acetyl CoA

NAD+ indicates NAD in the oxidised state. Two…

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4. The 5C compound is Dehydrogenated and Decarboxylated to form a 4C compound (Succinate), CO2 and
reduced NAD is formed.
5. At this stage, enough energy is released to form a molecule of ATP by Substrate level phosphorylation.
6. The 4C compound is Dehydrogenated to form another 4C compound intermediate…

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6. Enough energy is released at 2 stages to make ATP from ADP and Pi.
7. The electrons are passed along a chain of electron carriers and then donated to molecular oxygen.
8. As electrons flow along the ECT, energy is released and used by coenzymes associated with some of…

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When there is a limited supply of O2 for respiration all four stages stop!
This is because without O2 to act as the Final Hydrogen Acceptor all the NAD stays reduced as reduced NAD.
All the reactions of Glycolysis, Link and Krebs require NAD to remove Hydrogen, with no (oxidised)…

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Mitochondria ­ are organelles found in eukaryotic cells. They are the sites of aerobic stages of respiration i.e. Link Reaction,
Krebs Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

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Adaptations of the mitochondrion to Respiration:
1. Ribosomes to allow synthesis of proteins required for respiration, e.g. ATPsynthase.
2. Loop of DNA which codes for the proteins required for respiration, e.g. ATP synthase and dehydrogenase
3. Enzymes required for the Krebs Cycle, Dehydrogenase and Decarboxylase, are at high concentration…


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