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Photosynthesis Revision Notes

Autotrophs ­ Organisms that use light energy or chemical energy and inorganic molecules (CO2 + H2O) to synthesise
complex organic molecules.
Chemoautotrophs ­ Use chemical energy.
Phototrophs ­ Use light energy.
Heterotrophs ­ Organisms that ingest & digest complex organic molecules, releasing the chemical potential energy

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light dependent stage generating ATP and reduced NADP by photophosphorylation and the splitting of water
light independent stage uses the ATP and reduced NADP from the light dependent stage to convert carbon dioxide
into sugars via the Calvin Cycle.

Light Dependent Stage - generating ATP and NADPH2
Cyclic Photophosphorylation…

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Water is a source of:
Hydrogen ions, which are used in Chemiosmosis to produce ATP. These protons are then accepted by a
Coenzyme NADP which becomes Reduced NADP, to be used during the light independent stage to reduce
carbon dioxide and produce organic molecules.
Electrons to replace those lost by…

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The electron carriers are held in position in membranes to allow rapid transfer of electrons.
ATPase enzymes are found in the membranes, these are impermeable to hydrogen ions which accumulate in
the thylakoid compartment.
The hydrogen ions must cross the membranes down their diffusion gradient via the ATPase enzymes, the…


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