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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere
Bonding and Structure
(a) describe examples of giant covalent (network) structures, such as diamond and silicon (IV) oxide; explain
differences in physical properties of CO2 and SiO
2 in terms of their different structures

Giant molecular structures have a huge network of covalently bonded…

Page 2

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere
Activation The minimum amount of kinetic energy particles needed to react as particles need
Enthalpy this much energy to break the bonds to start the reaction.

(d) use the concept of activation enthalpy to explain the qualitative effect of temperature changes on rate

Page 3

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere

(g) explain and use the terms: dynamic equilibrium (rates of forward and back reaction equal; constant
concentrations of reactants and products; takes place in a closed system)
Dynamic equilibrium is when the forward reaction and backwards reaction equals. The concentrations of
reactants and…

Page 4

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere
Parts per million (ppm) is used instead of working with small percentages. Some gases are present in small
amounts that's not very convenient to write their quantities are percentages.

Converting percentages to ppm: (% of gas/100) x 1000000 OR % of gas x 10000…

Page 5

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere

Reaction Mechanisms
(m) describe the difference between homolytic and heterolytic bond fission and recognise examples
Breaking a covalent bond is called bond fission. A single covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons between two
atoms. It can break in two ways:
Heterolytic Fission…

Page 6

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere

Applications of Organic Chemistry
(p) explain why some properties of CFCs made them such useful compounds and discuss the relative advantages
and disadvantages of replacement compounds for CFCs: hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydroflurocarbons
(HFCs) and hydrocarbons
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are made up of chlorine, fluorine and carbon…

Page 7

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere

The ozone can also cause photochemical smog , which can be extremely irritating to the respiratory tract, leading
to coughing and various medical conditions if exposure is prolonged.

(r)recall and discuss aspects of the research leading to the discovery of the ozone layer and…

Page 8

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere

(u)calculate values for frequency and energy of electromagnetic radiation using the equation E = h
= h
E = Energy in Joules

h = Planck's Constant (6.63x1034 )
v = Frequency in Hz

(v)explain the `greenhouse effect' in terms of:
(i) solar energy…

Page 9

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: The Atmosphere

(x)recall and discuss different approaches to the control of carbon dioxide emissions:

Burning fewer fossil fuels Biodiesel/bioethanol ­ plants absorb the CO2 that is created in his process

(alternative fuels and (carbon neutral).
economy of use) Hydrogen ­ only produces water.
Nuclear power ­…


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