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Page 1

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution
Bonding and Structure
(a) explain how hydrogen bonds form and describe and give examples of hydrogen bonding, including in water
and ice
Hydrogen bonding is the strongest intermolecular force . They only form when hydrogen is
covalently bonded to fluorine , nitrogen or oxygen…

Page 2

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution
Organic Functional Groups
(d) recognise and write formulae for alkenes and use systematic nomenclature to name and interpret the names
of alkenes
Alkenes have the general formula
Cn
H2n
. They're hydrocarbons so are made of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.

Alkene molecules all…

Page 3

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution
Position of OH group Example
Primary At the end of the chain the OH is attached to a Ethanol
carbon bonded to 2 hydrogens







Secondary In the middle of the chain the OH is attached Butan2ol
to a carbon bonded to 1 hydrogen






Tertiary…

Page 4

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution
This involves the removal of one molecule from another. For example, ethanol can make ethene and water.







(i) explain use the term addition polymerisation and predict the structural formula of the addition polymer
formed from given monomer(s), and vice versa











(j) recall the addition…

Page 5

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution
heat and
pressure)

(k) describe and explain the following properties of alcohols:
(i) oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) and carboxylic acids with
acidified dichromate (VI) solution, including the importance of the condition (reflux or distillation) under
which it is done…

Page 6

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution



Reaction Mechanisms
(l) explain and use the terms:
Addition Where two or molecules react to form a single larger molecules
Electrophile A positive ion or molecule with a partial positive charge that will be attracted to a negatively
charged region and react by accepting…

Page 7

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution
In the E/Z system, Br has a higher priority than F and CH 3 has a higher priority than H.

If the two carbon atoms have their 'higher priority group' on
opposite sides, then it's an E isomer .
If the two carbon atoms…

Page 8

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Polymer Revolution
Can by moulded easily by heating Stays the same shape when heated just chars
e.g. Bin bags flexible Bakelite, cooking equipment doesn't melt
when heated





Modern Analytical
Techniques
(p) use relevant given data to interpret (and make predictions of) infrared spectra for organic compounds…

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