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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea
Formulae, equations and amount of substance
(a) use the concept of amount of substance to perform calculations involving:
Molecular Add up the relative atomic mass of the atoms
Formulae
Percentage Yield Percentage yield = Actual Yield x100
Theoretical Yield

Example: 30g of…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea


Atomic Structure
(c) use conventions for representing the distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals (no treatment of the shapes
of atomic orbitals is expected)
Shells are labelled by giving each a principle quantum number, n. The higher the
value of n, the…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea


Bonding and Structure
(e) draw and interpret simple electron `dotandcross' diagrams to show how atoms bond through ionic,
covalent and dative covalent bonds and be able to describe a simple model of metallic bonding;
What happens to electrons Atoms involved 'Dotandcross' diagram…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea



use the electron pair repulsion principle to predict and explain the shapes of simple molecules (such as CH4,
NH3, H2O and SF6) and ions (such as NH4+) with up to six outer pairs of electrons (any combination of bonding
pairs and lone…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea





(f)explain the term electronegativity; recall qualitatively the electronegativity trends in the Periodic Table; use
relative electronegativity values to predict bond polarity in a covalent bond; decide whether a molecule is polar
or nonpolar from its shape and the polarity of its bonds…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea







(g)explain, give examples of, and recognise in given examples the following types of intermolecular bonds:
Instantaneous dipole Electron movements in a molecule causes an uneven distribution of charge, forming
induced dipole an instantaneous dipole. The instantaneous dipole gets close to a neighbouring…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea








(j) describe redox reactions of s and p block elements and their compounds in terms of electron transfer, using
halfequations to represent the oxidation and reduction reactions, and defining oxidation and reduction as loss
and gain of electrons
Example: Magnesium reacts with…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea

The first ionisation enthalpy is the energy required to remove one electron: X (g) > X+ (g)+ e

The ionisation enthalpy INCREASES across a period as more protons are added to the nucleus so the attraction on
the outer electronsincreases making it…

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea
Location Ideally the chemical plant should be:
Near the source of raw materials to reduce transport costs
Near existing works to provide skilled labour
Near good communication links to reduce transport costs
Near the customers to reduce deliverycosts
Near large amounts of…

Page 10

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Chemistry of Natural Resources: Elements from the Sea
If you shake the reaction mixture with an organic solvent like hexane, the halogen that's present will dissolve
readily in the organic solvent, which settles out as a distinct later above the aqueous solution.

Element Displacement Reaction Ionic Equation

Cl Chlorine will…

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