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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels
Formulae, Equations and Amount of Substance
(a) use the concept of amount of substance to perform calculations involving:

Volumes of Gases Number of Moles = Volume in dm3

e.g. Calculate the number of molecules in 18dm3 of carbon dioxide at r.t.p.
Number of Moles…

Page 2

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels

(c) describe and design simple experiments to measure the energy transferred when reactions occur in solution
or when flammable liquids burn; explain the limitations of such practical procedures and the uncertainties of
measurements involved

In calorimetry you can find how much heat is given out…

Page 3

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels

3.Work out the heat produced by 1 mole of fuel = 26.125
= 1306kJmol1
(e) Use Hess' Law to explain how enthalpy cycles can be used to calculate enthalpy changes of reaction,
including via enthalpy changes of formation, combustion and bond enthalpies; carry out…

Page 4

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels

(g) use the term entropy in a qualitative manner, interpreting it as a measure of the number of ways that
molecules can be arranged
Entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder in a molecule. It measures the number of different ways the

Page 5

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels

(k) describe the use of catalysts (including zeolites) in isomerisation, reforming and cracking processes and in
the control of exhaust emissions
Isomerisatio Conditions:
n Catalyst: Platinum on aluminium oxide (big surface area and aluminium oxide is cheap)
150 C
Zeolite catalyst (a mineral with…

Page 6

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels
Acid rain is formed by burning fossil fuels that contain sulfur . The sulfur burns to produce
sulfur dioxide gas which then enters the atmosphere , dissolves in the moisture , and is
converted into sulfuric acid destroys trees and vegetation and corrodes buildings and…

Page 7

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels

(n) recognise members of the following homologous series: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols and

nH 2n+1


nH 2n

Alkenes CnH2n

Arenes This is a benzene ring (C
6H 6). It has 6 carbons, 6

hydrogens and 3 double bonds. The…

Page 8

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels



Esters oxygen
atom in
between carbon

(o) explain the terms:

Aliphatic Compounds that do not contain a benzene ring
Aromatic Compounds that do contain a benzene ring
Saturated Compounds that contain only single bonds between carbon atoms no
double bonds…

Page 9

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels

Rule 3: Identify the position of each substituent by a number. The numbering is done from the end of the
carbon that gives the lowest number for the substituent group. If there are identical groups then the number is
repeated and is given the prefix:…

Page 10

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Chemistry for Life: Developing Fuels

When a carbon atom makes four single bonds, the angle between any two of the covalent bonds is
109.5O . This
forms a tetrahedral shape.

When there's a double bond and two single bonds, the bond angles are
120o and is said to be trigonal…


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