OCR F212 Classification

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Module 3: Biodiversity and Evolution
2.3.2 Classification
(a) define the terms
Classification The process of sorting living things into groups according to how closely related they are.
Phylogeny The study of the principles of classification. It reflects the evolutionary relationships of the
species, which can be seen on an evolutionary tree. The more closely two species are
related, the closer they appear together on the evolutionary tree and the more recently in
the past they shared a common ancestor.
Taxonomy The study of evolutionary relationships between organisms. The differences between
species can be used to classify species. Species are usually groups according to their physical
similarities. All species that look very similar are placed together. Species that look quite
difference are placed in separate groups.
(b) explain the relationship between classification and phylogeny
By grouping things into their evolutionary relationships in natural classification phylogeny, which studies the
relationship, we can see what organisms are closely related to each other with common ancestors and determine
using genetics which organisms belong where and help identify organisms which should be classified in certain
areas.
(c) describe the classification of species into the taxonomic hierarchy of domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order,
family, genus and species
Domain Dark
Kingdo King
m
Phylum Penguins
Class Can
Order Only
Family Fly
Genus Going
Species South
(d) outline the characteristic features of the following five kingdoms:

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Module 3: Biodiversity and Evolution
(e) outline the binomial system of nomenclature and the use of scientific (Latin) names for species
The binomial system uses two names to identify each species: the genus name and the species name. Latin was a
universal language, which means that species are given a universal name. For example, Homo sapiens is the
binomial name given to humans. Homo refers to the genus to which humans belong. The genus name is always
given a capital first letter.…read more

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Module 3: Biodiversity and Evolution
(g) discuss the fact that classification systems were based originally on observable features but more recent
approaches draw on a wider range of evidence to clarify relationships between organisms, including
molecular evidence
Early Classification Systems More Recent Classification Systems
The early classification system of Linnaeus and other By the 17th Century, scientists had microscopes to
scientists were based on observable features, help. Later electron microscopes revealed details
meaning they were limited to the features of inside cells.…read more

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Module 3: Biodiversity and Evolution
In 1990, Carl Woese suggested a new classification system of domains, basing his ideas on detailed study of RNA.
In the three domain system, organisms with cells that contain a nucleus are placed in the domain Eurkarya.
Organisms that were in the kingdom Prokaryotae (unicellular organisms with no nucleus) were separated into two
domains: Bacteria (Eubacteria) and the Archaea (Archaebacteria).
The three domain system was proposed because of new molecular evidence.…read more

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