OCR F211 Transport in Animals

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Module 2: Exchange and Transport
1.2.2 Transport in Animals
(a) explain the need for transport systems in multicellular animals in terms of size, level of activity and surface
area: volume ratio
Singlecelled Animals Multicellular Animals
Example Paramecium Humans
Size Small (microscopic) Large
Diffusion Distances Small few layers of cells = oxygen and Large the many layers of cells use up
nutrients can be supplied to all the the oxygen and nutrients, that are
cells in the body diffusing in, meaning they will not
reach the cells deeper within the body
Level of Activity Less active so no need for a specialised More active so will need good supplies
transport system as there's less of oxygen and nutrients to supply the
demands for oxygen and nutrients energy for movement. A specialised
transport system will meet the cells'
needs of oxygen and nutrients
Surface Area: Volume Large SA:V ratio so no need for a Small SA:V ratio so there's a need for a
Ratio specialised transport system specialised transport system
(b) explain the meaning of the terms:
Single Circulatory Blood only flows through the heart once for each complete circuit only 1 circuit
System e.g. in fish, the heart pumps blood to the gills and then to the rest of the body in a
single circuit; and insects
Double Circulatory Bloods flows through the heart twice for each complete circuit 2 circuits
System e.g. in mammals, blood goes from the heart to the body, to the heart, to the lungs
then back to the heart
(c) explain the meaning of the terms:
Open Circulatory Blood flows freely through their body cavity, carrying nutrients to their cells.
System e.g. an insect
Closed Circulatory Their blood flows through blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) and they
System have a heart to push the blood around their body e.g. fish, mammals

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Module 2: Exchange and Transport
High pressure there is
moreresistance and friction due
to a greater blood flow
(f) describe the cardiac cycle, with reference to the action of the valves in the heart
Atrial Systole/ Ventricular Diastole:
1. Blood enters the atria and the pressure inside the atria increases
2. The pressure is higher in the atria than the ventricles so the atrioventricular valves open
3. The atria contract pushing blood into the ventricles
Atrial Diastole/ Ventricular Systole:
4.…read more

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Module 2: Exchange and Transport…read more

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Module 2: Exchange and Transport
Arteries Veins Capillaries
Function Carries blood away from the Carries blood to the heart They allow the exchange of
heart to the rest of the body materials between the blood
and cells of tissues
Transports All arteries carry oxygenated All veins carry deoxygenated Carries oxygenated and
blood except for the blood except for the deoxygenated blood
pulmonary arteries which take pulmonary veins which take
deoxygenated blood to the oxygenated blood to the heart
lungs from the lungs
Wall Very thick…read more

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Module 2: Exchange and Transport
Feature Blood Tissue Fluid Lymph
Cells Erythrocytes, leucocytes Some phagocytic white Lymphocytes
and platelets blood cells
Proteins Hormones and plasma Some hormones, proteins Some proteins
proteins secreted by body cells
Fats Some transported as None More than in blood
lipoproteins (absorbed from lacteals in
80120mg per 100cm3 Less (absorbed by body Less
Amino acids More Less (absorbed by body Less
Oxygen More Less (absorbed by body Less
Carbon Dioxide Little More (released by body More…read more

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Module 2: Exchange and Transport
(m) describe and explain the significance of the dissociation curves of adult oxyhaemoglobin at different carbon
dioxide levels (the Bohr effect)
Oxygen Dissociation Curve:
The first oxygen does not attach easily to the haem groups , due
to it being in the centre of the haemoglobin molecule
The concentration of oxygen rises making it easier to oxygen to
associate with the heam groups.…read more


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