Oceans on the Edge - Revision Notes

Overview of the whole topic with case studies included. Hope this helps!

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  • Created on: 03-04-12 08:55
Preview of Oceans on the Edge - Revision Notes

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O ceans on t
he edge
Coral reef ecosystem:
Wo r
th $200 bi
ll
i
o n
/year
(good s
+
services)
O ccup i
es 0.
2% of
ocean
I nha bi
ted by
1/3
o f
al
l
ma ri
ne
li
fe
Coral reef conditions:
2 0C
30C
S hall
ow
w at
ers (
40 m)
C lear/
unpoll
u t
ed water
w i
th
s t
eady salt
cont
en t
Coral reefs can be found in:
C ari
b bean
reefs
(15%)
I ndian Ocea n
(60%)
P acif
ic
(25%)
C oral
pol
y p &
Z ooxanthel
lae symb i
oti
c r
elati
onshipr ely
on each ot
her f
or
food +
shelt
er
Z o oxanthell
ae lives i
nside
co r
al
po l
yp +
ph ot
osyn t
hesises
to pr
od uce
food whi
ch coral
pol
yp can
eat.
C O RAL RE E F:
hard ri
dg e f
orme d by
the ext
ernal
skeletons
of mil
li
ons of
coral
pol
yps
D EC OMP O S ER:
B acter i
a/f
un gi
which
b r
eakd own organi
c ma t
erial
back
int
o nutr
ient
s
B I
O DIVE RS I
T Y:
n o.
+ v ar
iet
y
of
species f
oun d
w i
thi
n a par
ti
cu l
ar
area
N UT RIENT CYC LE :
mo veme nt
+
reuse of
imp or
tant
substances,
su ch
as ni
tr
o gen,
i
n an ecosyst
em
C O MME R C I
AL FIS HING :
l
arge scal
e
far
mi ng
of f
ish
+ crust
ace ans
S I
L TATION :
d eposit
ion o f
sedi
me nt
in r
iver
s + harbours
E UT RO PH I
C ATIO N:
los s
o f
oxygen i
n water
after
excessive
nu t
ri
ent
e nr
ichmen t
has
taken pl
ace
R UN OFF :
wa t
er
th at
f
lo ws dir
ectl
y over
land t
ow ards
sea /
ri
vers
C O RAL BL EA CHIN G: e nvi
ronme ntal
condi
ti
o ns
beco me too
stressf
ul
for
Zooxan t
hell
ae so
they
leave t
he cor
al
in
a n
e ner
g y
d ef
ici
t
+
colou rl
ess stat
e.
Human threats to coral reefs:
D EF OR ES TATION i nc rease i
n sur
face run
o f
f mo re si
lt
ati
onc loudy
w at
ers:
blocks
sunli
ght Z ooxanthel
lae
c an'
t
p hot
o synt
h esise no
food for
coral
pol
yp
O VE RFISH ING
O F
C ER TA I
N
S PEC I
E S ma rine
ecos yst
em b ecomes unbalanceda l
gal
blooms (or
igi
nall
y
c ont
roll
ed by f
ish pop.) b l
ock sunl
ightn o food
for
co r
al
po l
yp
T OU RISM mo re sew ag e h igher
level
of
nit
rates
+ phosp hat
e s
enters
seasa l
gal
blooms n o
food
for
coral
E conomi c dev el
op men tg r
ea t
er
d ema nd
for
ene r
gyp owe r
pl
ants
d i
scharge
ho t
water
i
nto
seai n cr
e ase i
n water
temp .
c oral
bleachi
n g
S norkell
ing di
v ingd amag e
fr
a gi
le
corals
(i
.e.
breaking
bit
s off
as
souven i
rs,
wal
k on t
hem. .
.)
A GRICU L TUR AL DE VEL O PME NT fer
ti
li
ser r
unoff
(
nit
rat
es
+p hosphat
es)a l
gal bl
ooms no
food
for
cor
al
Natural threats to coral reefs:
T SUNA MId e bri
s from i
s land me r
ges
w i
th
seap ol
lut
ed wat
ersn o f
ood f
or
coral
H URRIC A NE p ow erf
ul
w avesd amage
co r
alsalgal
bl
ooms bef
ore
they
recover

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