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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Classification and Diagnosis of OCD

Most forms of mental disorder are categorised into groups according to their common symptoms,
in diagnostic manuals like the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The
DSM is produced in the USA and used in the UK; the most recent version…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Validity

The extent to which a classification system, like the DSM, measures what it claims to measure.

Discriminant validity ­ the ability of a diagnosis to distinguish between OCD and other conditions. Rosenfeld
found that patients diagnosed with Y-BOCS had higher scores than those with other anxiety disorders…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Genetic Factors

Nestadt looked at 80 patients with OCD and 343 first degree relatives and 73 control patients and
300 of their relatives. They found that people with a first degree relative with OCD had a five
times greater risk of having the illness, compared with the general…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Ritual behaviours associated with this anxiety disorder could be considered an exaggeration of
adaptive behaviour. Marks and Nesse suggest the following examples of adaptive behaviours that
may lead to obsessive compulsive behaviours:

1. Grooming Behaviour ­ parasitism is reduced by grooming, OCD sufferers groom endlessly
2. Concern for…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Soomro reviewed 17 studies of the use of SSRIs with OCD and they were found to be more effective
than placebos in reducing symptoms as measured with Y-BOCS up to 3 months after treatment. Koran
said little long term data existed
Koran said that tricyclics are more effective…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Greenburg used TMS to treat 12 OCD patients, 20 minutes of treatment was effective for at least 8
hours. However, when patients were given sham TMS or TMS there was no measurable difference
afterwards as assessed by the Y-BOCS. So earlier success may have been due to the…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Compulsions ­ compulsive rituals are learnt because of the association between the anxiety-associated
obsessions and the reduction in anxiety. So ritualistic behaviour is reinforced and is carried out when the
individual is faced with obsessive thoughts or situations that provoke anxiety.

Evidence:

Tracy said that Mowrer's theory would…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




pregnancy. This suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorders have different triggers in men and
women.

Psychological therapies for OCD

Psychoanalysis

Koran reported that there were no controlled studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of
psychoanalysis in dealing with OCD. However, the therapeutic approach may help patients who
resist treatment for obsessions…

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder




Success of ERP depends on the effort made by the patient. This leads to a substantial refusal rate which
may increase the success of this therapy as only those who are willing to be helped may agree to
participate.

Cognitive Therapy

This therapy focuses on changing thoughts, rather…

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