Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Cheat Sheet




Observational Methods

The Basics:











Structured Observations

Involves the use of tables, predetermined categories and systematic
sampling

Systematic Sampling

Time Sampling: observations made at regular time intervals and
coded.
Point Sampling: focus on one individual for a set period of time
and record only their behaviour during this period…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Cheat Sheet






Weakness:

Subjective
Limited, important data may be missed out

Remedy:

Interrater reliability
More specific in category
Pilot run
Training the observers

Type of Observation

NATURALISTIC: behaviour is studied in a natural situation

Strengths:

Ecologically Valid
Less demand characteristics

Weaknesses:

Less reliable
Unethical
Confounding Variables

CONTROLLED: some variables are…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Cheat Sheet




NON PARTICIPANT: the experimenter observes from the sidelines

Strengths:

Not biased
Shouldn't miss anything (sees everything happening)

Weaknesses:

More Demand characteristics involved
No real insight in to what is happening

PARTICIPANT: observer acts as part of the group being watched

Strengths:

Real insight in to what is happening…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Cheat Sheet




Accurate



Weaknesses:

More demand characteristics (due to observer effect)
Less Valid



DEFINITIONS:

OBSERVER EFFECT: a form of demand characteristic in which the
presence or assumed presence of an observer leads to the participant
in not acting in a natural manner. May occur in any controlled
observation, overt observation,…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »