Objectives of Foreign Policy from 1890

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Objectives of US Foreign Policy from
Reasons for and against Expansion/Imperialism
Reasons For Expansion/Imperialism Reasons Against Expansion/Imperialism
Some Americans felt it was A minority of Americans against
the "Manifest Destiny" of the USA to Imperialism formed the AIL
dominate the Northern half (Anti-Imperialist League)
encouraging western expansion included people such as Mark
beyond Mississippi
Twain, Andrew Carnegie and
Americans felt they were "morally
William Jennings Bryan
obliged" to rule colonies to Christianise
and civilise Many people had ideals that were
Idea of Preclusive Imperialism more traditionalist and defensive than
Grow an empire before anyone imperialist
else The USA could not even treat its
to compete with the European African and Native American minorities
powers that were already well
expanding How could they look after
Rapid increase in economy proved that
the US needed to control new markets
Expansion could lead to
America's industrial economy (GDP)
experienced a downturn after a rapid entanglements, possibly war
growth in the 1870s-1880s by 4% The USA did not have the man
annually power of expertise to run an
Taking over new colonies meant Empire like Britain
cheaper raw materials would be Acting like the other Great Powers
available went against the principles of American
More money would be coming democracy
It was considered deceitful and
This was especially needed with
morally wrong
growing industrialisation
Expansion of the Navy/Military meant How could a colony that fought a war
better protection interests and trade for freedom enslave others?
Americans could joint protectorate to
protect smaller colonies
America had to be a major naval power
which required the acquisition of
colonies to supply bases around the
Powerful nations in History had always
been strong sea powers

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Beginnings of Expansion
One such impulse was the Monroe Doctrine and traditional American hostility to European
Formulated in 1823 with the presumption that Latin America would be receptive
to American influence
It was no surprise when they began to have concerns over the Spanish colony of
Cuba, near American mainland
When the British government fell into a border dispute with Venezuela over British Guiana
in 1985, the Americans urged arbitration of the dispute which had settled the matter
Congress had allowed Cleveland to use…read more

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McKinley's Foreign Policy 1896-1901
Success Failure
Gained many lands due to the Spanish McKinley was forsaking his own views
American War to stay in power as he was pacifist
Guam His views divided the Republican Party,
Puerto Rico as he was going against the views of his
Guantanamo Bay party
Under Platt Amendment gained Some in his party were even
control of Cuba anti-imperialist
Led to annexation of Philippines which Defied McKinley
led to increased American influence A weak party was powerless
and trade in…read more

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The SpanishAmerican War (1898)
Cuban economy was already dependent on American markets for exporting their tobacco
and sugar
When Cuban Nationalists, led by Marti, began a revolt against Spanish rule in
1895, they received backing from America
The Spanish army crushed the revolt but their harsh methods were strongly
criticised in the USA
When the USS Maine exploded and was blamed on the Spanish, American decided to go to
war, the campaign being encouraged by business interests and Theodore Roosevelt-
secretary of the navy
Peace…read more

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Roosevelt's Foreign Policy 1901-1909
Annexation of the Philippines 1902
Stepping stone to Asian market
Increased trade with China
Alaska Boundary Dispute 1903
Dispute of Alaskan border with Canada and Britain
Roosevelt arranged a settlement in favour of American rights
Roosevelt Corollary 1904
Combined with Monroe Doctrine said that the "USA had the right to exercise
international police power in Latin America if cases of wrongdoing"
Showed that America would protect Latin America
Used to justify his interventionist policy
Russo-Japanese War 1905
American meditation ended the…read more

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An idea of a canal through Central America, linking the Atlantic and the Pacific
o The French had previously tried this in the 1880s but collapsed due to
financial problems
When the government of Columbia proved difficult to negotiate with, Roosevelt
sponsored an uprising of Panamanians to create independent republic of Panama
o In which Roosevelt could negotiate terms with
o Including domination of American regulation
Completed in 1914
Total cost only $10 million
Wanted to control the area
expansion of the US influence/control…read more

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Appointed William Jennings Bryan as his secretary of state
o The leader of Democratic anti-imperialist opposition to the policies of
Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft
Argued that almost all wars in history had been wrong and disputes between
nations should be settled peacefully
Christian principles were taken seriously by both Wilson and Bryan
This new approach showed itself in the Far East in 1913
Wilson's government renounced Taft's Dollar Diplomacy in China and gave its
support to the Open Door policy
o Using financial…read more


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