Nutrition Through Life

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Nutrition through life:
Energy and nutrient requirements of pre-school children
Toddlers have high energy requirements compared to adults as they are growing rapidly and are extremely active at
this age.
It is important not to give low-fat or high-fibre foods too often. They need some foods that are high in fat and low in
fibre, as well as protein, vitamins and minerals.
Toddlers should have small meals and snacks based on foods from the four main food groups:
Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods
Fruit and vegetables
Milk and dairy foods
Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein
Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods
Starchy foods such as bread, breakfast cereals, oats, rice, pasta and potatoes provide energy which is important for
growth and activity.
Fruit and vegetables
These are a really important part of the diet and provide fibre and a variety of vitamins and minerals.
Milk and dairy foods
Milk and dairy products such as cheese, yogurt and fromage frais are a very important part of the diet. These foods are a
very good source of calcium, which is important for bone development, as well as providing protein, zinc, vitamin A and
vitamins B2 and B12.
Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein
This food group includes lean meat such as chicken, lamb, pork or beef, meat products such as ham and sausages, as well
as eggs and fish. These foods provide protein, iron, zinc, vitamin D and B vitamins. In addition, oily fish (e.g. salmon, trout
and fresh tuna) is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids and a good source of vitamins A and D.
Other sources of protein and iron include beans and pulses such as baked beans, kidney beans, lentils and chick peas
(and foods made from them e.g. dhal and hummus). Other foods such as eggs, tofu and soya mince are also useful meat
Foods high in fat and/or sugar
Children need plenty of foods high in energy that also provide protein, vitamins and minerals to help them meet their
nutritional requirements. Whole milk and full fat dairy foods should therefore be given at this age. However, foods such
as chips, some crisps, cakes, biscuits and fried foods which are also high in fat should not be given too often.
Toddlers should drink at least ½ pint of milk daily. They can also be given tap water or still mineral water to drink.
Drinks containing sugar e.g. fruit squashes, fruit juices, fizzy drinks and flavoured milks can cause decay of first teeth if
consumed too frequently. It is better to give diluted, unsweetened fruit juice but this should be limited to meal times
only to help protect teeth.
It is recommended that children aged 6 months to 5 years should be given supplements providing vitamins A, C and D (in
the form of liquid drops), this is particularly important if they do not eat a very varied diet.
Foods to avoid
Avoid giving the following to children of pre-school age:
Salt ­ children aged 1-3 years should have no more than 2g of salt (0.8g sodium) per day to reduce the risk of health
problems in later life. Foods prepared at home can be flavoured with herbs and spices instead of salt.
Raw eggs ­ eggs should be cooked until the white and yolk are solid. Foods containing raw or partially cooked eggs
should be avoided to reduce the risk of salmonella poisoning.
Shark, marlin and swordfish should not be given to toddlers because of the high levels of mercury they can contain.

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Whole or chopped nuts should not be given to children under age 5 because of the risk of choking.
Children have a higher energy requirement for their body size compared to adults. Children need foods that provide
sufficient energy but are also rich in nutrients. Children need a good supply of protein, and other nutrients including
calcium, iron and vitamins A and D.…read more

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Eating a healthy, varied diet and keeping active will be good for your health and help you deal with times of stress.
Growth and development are rapid during your teenage years, and the demand for energy and most nutrients is
relatively high. The growth spurt normally begins at around the age of 10 years in girls and 12 years in boys.…read more

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Energy 2500 kcal
Fat 95g
Saturated fat 30g
Up to 60g
Protein 45g
Fibre 18g
Salt (sodium) No more than 6g (2.4g sodium)
What is one portion of fruit and vegetables?
One portion of fruit and vegetables is about 80 grams (about a handful)
Good fats bad fats
Although most of us need to eat less fat, it is still important to have a small amount.
Bad fats - Avoid fatty foods, especially those rich in saturated fat.…read more

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Eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables each day. It is important to include a variety as they all contain different
nutrients and benefits.
Eat more starchy foods such as wholegrain bread, pasta, rice, potatoes and cereals. These should be the base of most
meals and together make up a third of your diet.
Cut down on foods that are high in saturated fat. Choose lower fat options such as 1% or semi-skimmed milk or
reduced-fat cheese.…read more

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Up to 60g
Protein 45g
Fibre 18g
Salt (sodium) No more than 6g (2.4g sodium)
Generally, women don't need to eat as much as men because a woman's body does not expend as much energy.
What is one portion of fruit and vegetables?
One portion of fruit and vegetables is about 80 grams (about a handful).
Good fats bad fats
Although most of us need to eat less fat, it is still important to have a small amount.…read more

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Omega 3 fatty acids have been suggested to help alleviate some of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, with possible
beneficial effects on swollen and tender joints, grip strength and mobility. There is also some evidence that they play a
role in preserving eye health, preventing cognitive decline and improving immune function.…read more

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You should only eat limited amounts of foods and drinks that are high in
fat and sugar.
Beside all the nutrients you get from a healthy varied diet, there are some vitamins and minerals that are very important
for the development of your baby and of which you have increased requirements.
Watch out for these vitamins and minerals
Folate/folic acid
This vitamin is important for the development of the neural tube.…read more

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BMI >26 - 29 7 - 11.5 kg weight gain
pp BMI >29 6 kg weight gain
When you are pregnant you are advised to avoid alcohol altogether, particularly during the first three months.
Try to limit your caffeine intake to 200 mg per day.
Fish is a great source of omega-3 fatty acids which are required for the development of the central nervous system and
the retina (the light sensitive tissue in the eyes) of your baby.…read more

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Most doctors calculate obesity using a formula known as the BMI, which is a measure based on height and weight that
applies to both adult men and women.
To calculate your BMI divide your weight in kilograms by your height in metres squared.
18.5 to 24.9 - normal
25 to 29.9 - overweight
30 and above - obese
Doctors have recently recognised a new category: those with a BMI above 40 are considered morbidly obese.
People with BMIs between 19 and 22 live longest.…read more


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