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Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are essential to heredity in living organism. Understanding the structure of
nucleotides and nucleic acids allows an understanding of their roles in the storage of genetic
information and cell metabolism.
Nucleotide Structure

Made from pentose sugar, nitrogenous base and phosphate group. All nucleotides contain…

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They are broken by breaking phosphodiester bonds.

ADP and ATP ­
Phosphorylated nucleotides.
To phosphorylate a nucleotide you add one or more phosphate group to it.
ADP has 3 base A, sugar ribose and 2 phosphate groups.

ATP has base A, sugar ribose and three phosphate groups.

Making and Using…

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DNA SemiConservative Replication ­

Copies itself before cell division so each new cell has full amount of DNA. Called SemiConservative
because half of each strand in each new DNA molecule is from original DNA.
1) DNA helicase breaks H bonds between 2 polynucleotide strands. Helix unzips to form 2

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Genetic code is universal which means same specific base triplets code for same amino acids in all
living things.

Transcription ­

1st stage of protein synthesis. mRNA copy of gene is made in nucleus.
1) RNA polymerase attaches to DNA ­ H bonds break which separate 2 strands and DNA…


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