NUCLEAR ARMS RACE - MUTUALLY ASSURED DESTRUCTION

mutually assured destruction (MAD) and the nuclear arms race

a2 history with edexcel

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  • Created on: 05-06-12 20:29
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Mutually Assured Destruction
1. In 1961 which Eisenhower policy did JFK inherit?
Massive retaliation
2. What did it mean?
A policy of responding to major Soviet conventional attacks with a massive nuclear response
3. What did Khrushchev do on October 30th 1961 to remind the US about Soviet nuclear
power?
Russian bomber crew prepared to drop the largest bomb the world had ever seen (super bomb)
15 million more TNT than WWII 15 miles away people blown off their feet
4. What does McNamara say about the utility (usefulness) of nuclear weapons?
Only works as a deterrent to the opposition
Never start it ­ suicide
5. How did JFK alter the strategic target of US nuclear missiles? What is this called?
Soviet military bases
No-cities plan
No-cities counter force
6. What was the idea behind this policy? How did the Soviets view this?
Make nuclear war morally acceptable
Deceive one self
7. Why was General Powell (Power), head of the American Strategic Air Command an example
of the utter lunacy that infected some mindsets in the Cold War?
Bomb them all up. Satisfied if there were 2 Americans and 1 Soviet
President had the authority but Powell could influence him ­ significant if he went rogue
8. What was the importance of the Missile Crisis in Soviet-US relations?
B-52's were ready
Showed just how close to a nuclear precipice the world was standing
Telephone hotline
Limited Test Ban Treaty ­ USA, USSR and GB
Kremlin didn't want to confront the US from a position of weakness
9. What did the Soviet Union do to ensure in the future it no longer felt too weak to confront
the US?
Added 100's of missiles to their arsenal
10. What impact did this have on US strategy?
The US had to accept that they could no longer destroy all the Soviets forces
Both had an interest in avoiding nuclear war
11. By 1964 what had McNamara decided about his counter-force/no cities policy?
Dangerous illusion
War could only be avoided now by mutual suicide (MAD) to work as a deterrent
Each side be confident that they can deter the other

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Balance
12. Why were submarine nuclear weapons systems become an important element in MAD?
Retaliate after a surprise attack
Danger to the world ­ so many ready to make a nuclear strike
Sad consequences if it happened
13. What happened in 1966 over the coast of Spain near Palomares?
B-52 routine refuelling mid-air
Brushed each other and blew up
4 H-bombs scattered
3 hit the ground
1 lost in the sea
5,000 US soldiers fleet searched the ocean
14.…read more

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What did the SALT talks agree?
Progress on ABMs
Barely touched MIRVs
The 2 sides agreed to limit ABMs…read more

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