Notes on trade, aid, development and sustainability

a collection of notes, mostly from bitesize.

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Geography revision notes
Measuring development
Studying development is essentially about measuring how developed one country is compared to
other countries, or to the same country in the past. There are many different ways of considering
development, but the two most important are economic development and human development.
Economic development is a measure of how wealthy a country is - and of how this wealth is
generated (for example agriculture is considered less economically advanced then banking).
Human development measures the extent to which people have access to wealth, jobs, knowledge,
nutrition, health, leisure and safety - as well as political and cultural freedom. The more material
elements in this list, such as wealth and nutrition, are often grouped together under the heading
standard of living. The less material elements, such as health and leisure, are often referred to as
quality of life.
Development indicators
There is no simple, single way to calculate the level of development of a country, region, or people,
because countries and economies, cultures and peoples differ so much. Instead geographers use a
series of development indicators to help them judge a country's level of development. For example:
1. Health. Do all the people in a country have access to medical care? What level of healthcare is
available - basic or advanced? Is it free or paid for?
2. Industry. What type of industry predominates? LEDCs tend to focus more on primary industries,
such as farming, fishing and mining. MEDCs focus on secondary industries, such as manufacturing.
The most advanced countries tend to focus more on tertiary industries - services businesses,
such as banking and information technology.
3. Education. Do all the people in a country have access to education? Is it free? What level of
education is available (ie primary education, secondary education or further/higher education)?
The slideshow below shows examples of these indicators. For each one, ask yourself whether it is an
economic or a human development indicator
In order to assess the economic development of a country, geographers use economic indicators.
The most important of these indicators are listed below:
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the wealth or income of a country. GDP is the total value
of goods and services produced by a country in a year.
Gross National Product (GNP) is another measure of a country's wealth or income. GNP measures
the total economic output of a country, including earnings from foreign investments, which are not
included in GDP.
GNP per capita is a country's GNP divided by its population. (Per capita means per person.)
Economic growth measures the annual increase in GDP, GNP, GDP per capita, or GNP per capita.

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Inequality of wealth is an indication of the gap in wealth and income between a country's richest and
poorest people. It can be measured in many ways (eg the proportion of a country's wealth owned by
the richest 10% of the population, compared with the proportion owed by the remaining 90%).
Inflation measures how much the prices of goods, services and wages are increasing each year.…read more

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Quotas are limits on the amount of
goods imported and usually work in the MEDCs favour.
Many MEDCs will make allowance in their domestic budgets to provide aid to LEDCs. This aid
may be given as part of a planned process or as a response to a emergency. Many charities
also exist to provide aid to LEDCs.
Types of aid
Aid type Definition Example
Bilateral aid Aid is given from one country to The UK provides funds for the
another.…read more

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Quota=A limit on imports of a particular product from particular countries. The limit can relate to
volume or value of product.
Subsidy= Money paid by a government to producers in its own country to have keep them more
competitive in the global market.
Tariff= An extra `import tax' levied by the importing country on goods arriving from overseas. This
varies widely depending on what the product is and where the product is from.
1.…read more

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Technological changes that enable people, goods, money and above all information and ideas to
travel the world much faster than ever before.
2. The liberalisation of world markets, greatly increasing levels of trade between different parts of
the world.
Globalisation has been taking place for hundreds of years, but has speeded up enormously over the
last half-century.
Factors influencing globalisation include:
Communications: TV, telephony and the internet have created a global village.…read more

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Globalisation operates mostly in the interests of the richest countries, which continue to dominate
world trade, and at the expense of developing countries - whose role in the world market is mostly
to provide the North and West with cheap labour and raw materials.
There are no guarantees that the wealth from inward investment will benefit the local community.
Often, profits are sent back to the MEDC where the TNC is based.…read more



if only i found this earlier and not one day before my exam. Thankyou. havent read through it yet but looks really helpful!

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