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Psychology Revision
Remembering and Forgetting

What is memory?

Memory is the retention of what we learn and what we experience
ENCODING: Process of translating information into a form in which it can be used, then
putting that coded information into our memory
STORAGE: the process of retaining information we have…

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Primary-recency effect

Supports the MSM. Occurs when we try to recall a list of words in any order

Recall Primary effect Recency effect

Position of words in series

The first few words are mentally rehearsed so that we can remember them later, this transfers these
words into our long term…

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Some experiences are remembered whether we rehearse them or not i.e Flashbulb
memories of highly significant events i.e twin towers.
The MSM provides basis for much research into memory and remains important for
understanding the structures and processes involved in memory

The Working Memory Model

Baddeley and Hitch ­ extended…

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The working memory model explains only short-term memory and makes no attempt to
explain long-term memorising.
We know relatively little about the central executive, even though it is the most important
component of the model.

Levels of Processing

Craik and Lokhart (1972) proposed this alternative structure to models of memory,…

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letters or not, it shoudldnt be assumed that they did not engage in further deeper
The model has been updated, but the basics remain the same. Lockhart and Craik accept the
fact that it was oversimplified and that they had not considered retrieval processes in
significant detail.

Types of…

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Aim: investigating forgetting in a short-term memory task

Method: participants had a list of 16 digits. In one condition, the list was presented at the rate of one
per second. In the other, it was presented at a rate of four per second. After presentation of the list,
participants were…

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Conclusion: Supports the interference theory rather than the decay theory


Although the effects of interference have been demonstrated in experiments, there
is no real explanation of why these affects occur or of the cognitive processes occur
Most research into the effects of interference on forgetting involves artificial stimuli

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Godden and Baddeleys finsdings in the underwater study occur only when
participants are asked to perform free recall, and not when the test involves
recognition. So retrieval failure may not explain the insances of forgetting that occur
with other forms of recall
The context-dependent nature of memory has been demonstrated…

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neurons there will be a pattern of stimulation and inhibition. Brain research suggests that the pattern
of activity between connecting neurons forms the basis for making a memory.

Yarnell and Lynch (1970)

Aim: to investigate the effects of head trauma and concussion on memory loss

Method: field study of American…

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Results: in extended interviews about their sexual histories, 30% of women failed to report the
abusive episode documented by the hospital. They did quite often report their general experience
of having been abused

Conclusion: some participants failed to recall specific incidents of abuse because these had been




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