Notes on Plant Reproduction for Dual Award Biology

Notes for those stydying IGCSE Biology Dual Award on teh Plant Reproduction section 

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Plant Reproduction
A flowering plant always follow certain steps in its life cycle
A seed germinates which is essentially respiration, and then grows by mitosis. Mitosis
requires energy, which comes from the respiration of starch stored in the seed. The
seedling will grow quickly, and magnesium, which is also stored in the seed, will help
make chlorophyll so it can start to photosynthesise, which means it can make its own
Providing the plant has got water, minerals and sunlight, and then it will eventually
produce flowers the reproductive organs of the plant.
Most flowers contain both the male and female parts. The anthers will ripen and
produce pollen grains and the ovary will ripen and produce ovules these are known
as gametes.
Usually the sex cells will ripen at different times to avoid selfpollination and would
therefore prevent selffertilisation as well.
However, some plants want to selfpollinate, or have been bred to selfpollinate, such
as peas.
Although, most will crosspollination as it produces more variation in offspring.
Plants will therefore need to move their pollen grains from one plant or flower to
another by either the wind or otherwise by insects.
Insect pollination often uses bees to transfer the pollen from the anther to the stigma.
The pollen grains are large, heavy and sticky.
Wind pollinated plants have their pollen grains are blown onto the stigma. It helps if
the seeds are light, small, smooth and have air bladders.
Windpollination is rather ineffective so many pollen grains have to be produced.
Insect pollination is much more effective, so not as many pollen grains need to be
The pollen grain lands on the stigma, which is very sticky.
The pollen grain then grows a pollen tube which travels down the style, into the ovary,
and into the ovule through the micropyle. The nucleus from the pollen grain falls down
the pollen tube and fertilises the ovule. This makes a seed.
The seeds are then dispersed inside fruits, so that they start to germinate away from
the parent plant. This will reduce competition.

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Male Gamete (inside pollen grain)
Female Gamete (inside the ovule)
Seed…read more


Brittany - Team GR

Thanks A lot for sharing this resource. :) 

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