notes on gender, relationships and sleep

speicifcation- essay plans for each point

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Topic Points A01 A02/A03
Biological · Circadian, Repeat every 24hours +Gupa (1991) IQ tests: higher results were 7pm, not 9am or
rhythms and sleep infradian, and E.g., core body temperature peak in afternoon, low 2pm.
Biological ultradian point in morning +Folkard (1977) Long term recall is better when the body temp.
rhythms rhythms, E.g., sleepwake cycle is higher sample of 12 and 13 yo. Stories read at either 9am or
including the role Body needs to be synchronised with sleep wake cycle3pm. One week on, later group had better recall
of endogenous so energy is only provided when needed Hord and Thompson (1973) field experiment no correlation
pacemakers and Endogenous pacemakers are the body's internal clock between c ore temp and cognitive performance
of exogenous that regulates biological rhythms. Most important are+ Siffre (1975) spent 6 months in a cave. No time cues. Was 36
zeitgebers in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland yo. However, could ask for artificial lights. Sleep wake became
control of Exogenous zeitgebers are external stimuli that are 2530 hours
circadian rhythms important in accurate control of biological rhythms. + Stephan and Zucker (1972) rats with damaged scn didn't
E.g., light and temperature show normal 12 hour patterns. Concluded scn was a key
Aschoff and Weaver (1976) students in a bunker. pacemaker in bio rhythms
Found rhythms between 2527 hours showing they Czeisler et al. (1999) dim lighting can alter circadian rhythms
need to be corrected each day by exogenous from 1635 hours. Siffres' study used dim (artificial) lighting
zeitgebers Duffy et al. (2000) contradicts Aschoff: people are innately
Occurs less than every 24 hours e.g., menstrual cycle different morning/ evening people determinist
occurs every 28 days endogenous pacemakers are reductionist
Egg is released from ovary every 28 days + Russell et al. (1980) similar methodology and findings.
Oestrogen and progesterone prepare organs for Evolutionary terms: synchronisation may occur so women can
possible fertilisation of egg share tasks such as, breastfeeding.
Jet lag may affect menstruation due to phase shift +supporting pheremonal research from rats.
McClintock (1971) observed synchronised menstrual women's basketball team for extended period of time, no
cycles in 135 1722 yr olds. Mc. and Stern (1988) 9 correlation in menstrual cycles. However, exercise, dieting and
women, frozen pheromones, wiped under noses of 29stress could be confounding variables
women with irregular periods. Found 68% of women retrospective data (menstruation dates)
had changed menstrual cycles Wilson (1992) reanalysis and correction of errors in study's like
Sleep stages (see below) mc's. makes evidence disappear

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· Disruption of Biological rhythms are controlled by endogenous +3 mile island nuclear disaster was at 4am. Exon Val dez oil
biological pacemakers, affected by exogenous zeitgebers. tanker disaster was at midnight
rhythms, for Circadian rhythms affected by jet lag and shift work +Knuttson ppl who did shift work for 15+ yrs at higher risk of
example shift Shift work: workers are required to be alert at night, developing heart disease.…read more

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Stage 4: EEG shows only Delta waves. Metabolic +hormonal changes in adolescence upsets circadian rhythm.
rate lowest. Hard to wake the person up Delayed sleep phase syndrome Crowley et al. (2007)
REM: Rapid eye movement, fast, desynchronised
EEG. Complete loss of muscle tone = paradoxical R.L.A= schools should accommodate poor attention span in
sleep morning ( Wolfson and Carskadon, 2005)
Sleep cycle is 90 minutes long Adult: Kripke et al.…read more

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SWS. Babies have more REM because they're brains are still
Disorders of · Explanations May involve trouble falling asleep (initial), trouble Difficulty to generalise.…read more

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It only occurs during NREM/SWS and is related to night Lecendreux: Twin study ­ about 50% concordance in MZ
terrors which are also only found in NREM and is most twins compared to 1015% in DZ twins. Also identified a gene,
common in children. DQB1*05, which could be critical in SW and night terrors
A sleep walker is not conscious and later has no memory of
events during sleep walking.…read more

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Single participants waited in an experimenters office,This is a good account for friendships, we like others who are
listening to the radio reciprocal with their feelings
The participant heard a two news broadcasts: good or Only appears to be relevant to the early stages of attraction
bad news Theories assume people are totally selfish and are only concerned
When the experimenter returned the participant was about the rewards they receive from a relationship.…read more

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Deterministic ­ it implies that every couple is comprised of two
economic background and social class. very similar people. This is not always true, however, because of
Individual characteristics play a small part at this stage. relationships such as a young woman and old man. They are definitely
complementing each other's needs, with the young woman looking for
· 2nd filter:
money and the old man looking for love and fun.…read more

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Thibaut and Kelley propose we develop a · Criticised for focusing too much on the individual's
comparison level. Which is a standard against which perspective and ignoring the social aspects of a
all of our relationships are judged. relationship, such as how partners communicate and
· CL is a product of our experiences in other interpret shared events.
relationships together with our general views of what · Main criticism however focuses on the selfish nature of the
we might expect from this particular exchange. theory.…read more

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· Equity Theory · Research: Rusbult (1983) asked participants to complete
· Ao1inequtiy and distress questionnaires over a 7month period concerning rewards
· Equity theory is an extension of the beliefs outlined in and costs associated with relationships, finding that SET
the social exchange theory which argues that people did not explain the early `honeymoon' phase of a
strive to achieve fairness in their relationships and feel relationship when balance of exchanges was ignored.
distressed if they perceive unfairness.…read more

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Intrapsychic: one sided dissatisfaction +Argyle: women identified lack of emotional support,
2) Dyadic: dissatisfaction discussed men lack of fun
3) Social: break down publicised. Negotiations made View of breakdown as a process is widely accepted as
4) GraveDressing: opinion on breakup formed.…read more


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