Notes on As Psychology Unit 1 Attachments

I made these notes from the class notes and notes my teacher gave me, they helped my understand attachments better, hope they help others...

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Notes on Attachments
Attachments
Attachment: an emotional reciprocal bond between infant and PCG
Attachment Behaviours:
Seeking Proximity
Separation Distress
Joy on Reunion
Orientation to one-another
Development of Attachments
Lorenz Study on geese & imprinting. Split geese eggs. ½ under mother & half in
incubator & saw him on hatching. Geese rapidly attached to him & followed him
around.
Imprinting has critical period of 13-16 hours, if no attachment if formed by 32
hours, one will never form.
Formation of Bonds between Parents & Children
Babies vulnerable at birth ­ attachment ensures survival
Klaus & Kennel study on skin-to-skin contact. Studied women in hospital ­ babies removed after birth.
Follwed for 1st year visiting monthly.
Control ­ routine contact: after delivery and at feeding
Experimental ­ extended contact: extra hour skin-on-skin contact after birth & 5hrs extra
over next 3 days
Mothers with extended ­ more soothing behaviours than control. Extended group formed closer
bonds with infants which suggests sensitive period after birth important for bonding. Findings
changed Western child birth practices - `rooming in'(child & mother in same room). Implies father
should be present at birth to give opportunity to form early bonds.
EVALUTATION
Young unmarried women from disadvantaged inner city areas, closer bonds may be due to
extra attention
DeChateau et al studied middle-class Swedish mothers & babies. 20 ­ routine contact, 22 ­
extended contact. Extended group hep babies more & gazed more. At 3mnths babies smiled
& laughed more, routine babies cried more, supporting Klaus & Kennel.

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Formation of Attachments
Attachments usually take 7-8 mnths to develop
Schaffer & Emmerson study on 60 working class infants from Glasgow. Visited monthly in 1st year and
at 18mnths. Looked at:
Separation Anxiety
Stranger fear
Approached children to see if show distress, interviewed mothers about
baby's response & rated babies on scale.
Found Attachment behaviours developed in stages. Shows separation anxiety from 6-8mnths &
attachment formed about month later. Most form multiple attachments; 65%
main attachment with mother.…read more

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Learning Theory ­ rewards
Evolutionary Theory ­ survival
Learning Theory
1st attachment made with PCG who feeds & comforts child. Attached Figure = source of pleasure &
removes discomfort.…read more

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Social Learning involves:
Role modelling; parents show affectionate behaviour & children imitate
Direct Instruction; parents teach children to reciprocate affection (give me a kiss goodbye)
Social Facilitation; parents watch & help children perform attachment behaviour when playing
with siblings/friends
EVALUTATION
This explanation accounts for importance of parents as role models for children, they teach
children how to love and how to be loves (Continuity Hypothesis)
Hay & Vespo don't deny importance of innate aspects of attachments but focus on social
influences on attachment behaviours
They…read more

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Tested over 700 pts & found strong relationship between childhood attachment type
and adult attachment type.
Black & Schutte carried out study on Continuity Hypothesis. 205 pts. Completed 3 measures to assess
childhood & adult attachment types.
1. Adult attachment interview ­ measured feelings about past & present adult relations
2. Adjectives to describe childhood relationships with both parents
3. Description of childhoods events/incidents that show relationship with parents
Found link between types of adult & childhood relationships.…read more

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Ainsworth used Separation Anxiety & Stranger fear to determine attachment type and recorded if
infant used mother as safe base. She identified 3 types;
Attachment Type Details
Secure (Type B) Used mother as safe base, happy to explore if
70% of sample mother present. Showed distress of she left,
welcomed her back on return. Wary of strangers
& treated them differently to mother
Insecure-Aviodant (Type A) Behaviour not orientated towards mother.…read more

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Differences in Attachment (Baby's temperament & Mother's sensitivity)
Ainsworth claimed differences due to mother's sensitivity
Sensitive mothers who respond accurately to babies needs make secure attachment with baby
Insensitive mothers (ignore them/become impatient) make insecure attachments which make baby
feel unsafe/unsure needs will be met
DeWolff & Van Ijzendoorn, meta-analysis on parental sensitivity & baby's attachment security. Found
0.24 correlation between sensitivity & attachment (weak positive);more sensitive careers have
more strongly attached babies
Others argue emphasis placed too much on mother & ignored baby's temperament.…read more

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