Notes of League of Nations for History GCSE

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History Revision Notes: Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations
1) Important decisions at the Paris Peace Conference about what was to happen to
Germany were taken by the Big three:
George Clemenceau (France):
Clemenceau was furious about Germany, as most of the watr was fought in France, and
much of the land, industry and agriculture of North France had been ruined. Furthermore,
Clemenceauhas experienced German incasion twice now, in 1870 and 1914. The French
public also wanted revenge on Germany, which put a lot of pressure on Clemenceau and
the government.
Clemenceau wanted security for France to prevent further attacks on it's frontiers. He
also wanted to disarm Germany, regain Alsace and Lorraine, and make Germany pay for
the damages in France, making Germany weaker and punishing them.
David Lloyd George (Britain):
Lloyd George believed that Germany houldn't be too harshly punished, as Britain
deended on it for business, trade, sellinggoods etc. This meant that the recovery of
Germany's economy would be the recovery of Britain's economy. However, his party
stated they would `make Germany pay,' as Lloyd George was aware that this was what
the public wanted.
Lloyd George wanted `justice' as he feared a harsh treaty would result in another war, so
wanted a midway point between Wilson and Clemenceau. However, he also wanted to
preserve the supremacy of the British Navy, and expand the British Empire and trade.
Woodrow Wilson (United States of America):
Wilson didn't want Germany to be harshly punished, as he believed in peace and being
open with each other. One reason he preferred this option was because he had only
been in the war since 1917, therefore not fully understanding the anger of France and
Britain. However, back at home his party was ;sing support, with people believing the
USA shouldn't have anything to do wth Europe, so he ended up on Clemenceau's side.
Wilson wanted peace, and the Fourteen points, in which he wanted disarmament, a
League of Nations, and self-determination for the people of Eastern Europe.
2) Terms of the Treaty of Versailles (GARGLE):
Guilt for the war- By Clause 231 of the treaty, Germany had to accept the blame `for
caiusing the loss and damage' of the war
Armed forces- The reaty restricled German armed forces to: only 100,000 men in
the army, banning conscription, no submarines or aeroplanes, only two submarines
or aeroplanes, only 6 battleships, demilitarisation of the Rhineland, no armed
vehicles e.g. aeroplanes

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Reparations- Germany had to pay for all the damage of the war- a sum was
eventually set at £6.6b. They were paid in instalments until 1984
Germany territory- Some of Germany's most productive land was take from them.
Alsace & Lorraine was given back to France. The Saar Coalfields were given to France
for 15 years. North Schlesig was given to Denmark (after a plebiscite). West Prussia (
including the Polish Corridor) and Upper Silesia were given to Poland. Danzig was
made a `free city.…read more

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Germany still intact politically, and she still had the potential to become a
powerful state - all her industry was still intact and still had access to raw
materials. In 1925, it was producing twice as much steel as Britain
No:
Made demands far exceeding Germany's resources. Besides, Germany had also lsot
more than 2m in the war and was also suffering from poverty, as her economy had
been severly crippled.
The Germans would say the Treaty was designed to weaken and humiliate them e.g.…read more

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Economic cooperation especially in business and trade
26 signed the Covenant of the League
7) Most Powerful members of the League:
Japan
Italy
8) Coutries which were not allowed to join the League:
Germany: Germany was refused entry to the League. They had been forced to
accept the treaty of Versailles and there was great bitterness against Germany.
Germany finally joined the League in 1926.
USSR: The USSR did not join the League of nations because they were Communist.…read more

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The World Health Organisation (WHO), The Refugee
Organisation and The Slavery Commission.
The Secretariat- Permanent officials paid by the League, who did all administrative
functions on a day to day basis. It kept records of the Leagues activities and
prepared reports. It was divided into sections for example health, armaments and
economic matters.
10) The League's Sanctions:
Moral condemnation, putting pressure on the guilty country and bringing world
opinion against it.
Economic sanctions, League members could refuse to trade with the guilty country.…read more

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