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B2 ­ Revision Notes


Most animal cells contain a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. The nucleus controls all
the activities of the cell. The cytoplasm is a liquid gel which is where most of the chemical reactions, which are
controlled by enzymes in the cytoplasm, take place.…

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Energy Flows

The Sun's energy is captured and used
for plants during photosynthesis. The
mass of living material at each stage of
a food chain is less than at the previous
stage. The biomass at each stage can
be drawn to scale and shown as a…

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B2 ­ Revision Notes

atmosphere by photosynthesis. It is returned to the atmosphere through respiration and combustion. The energy
originally captured by green plants is eventually transferred into consumers, into decomposers or as heat into the

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B2 ­ Revision Notes


Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions. Enzymes are biological catalysts. Enzymes are protein molecules
made up of long chains of amino acids. The chains are folded to form the active site. This is where the substrate of the
reaction binds with the enzyme. Enzyme…


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