Notes for urbanisation

full set of notes with case study notes for Newham

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Geography ­ Urban Environments
Urban Rural
An area of high population density with An area of little infrastructure which is
much infrastructure, which is dominantly mainly natural and has a low population
man-made density
URBANISATION- the process of becoming more urban, mainly through a greater
percentage of people living in towns and cities

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LIC's experiencing industrial boom:
Transnational corporations attracted to them
Cheap labour
Favourable government trade
Tax regulations
Jobs from the corporations pull people in
Urbanisation slowing in HIC's (counter-urbanisation):
Large proportion of people already in urban regions
Choosing to live in more rural areas
Transport and accessibility is improving
High crime rates
Rising cost of land
In-migration to urban areas: (PUSH and PULL factors)
crime employment
weather transport
poverty better health care
pollution Good welfare services
Natural Increase:
When the birth…read more

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Problems of Rapid Urbanisation:
Environmental Economic Social
Traffic congestion Lack of investment due to crime
Fly tipping Independent shops Derelict buildings
Habitat destruction High land prices Limited green space
The Distribution of Urban Land uses
Core: oldest part of the city, contains the central business district (CBD)
Inner City Ring: early suburbs, old housing, and some non-residential land uses
Suburban Ring: present suburbs with housing as the dominant land use
Urban fringe: countryside being eroded by the urban area to provide space
for housing…read more

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Densely populated Sparsely populated
Indian Harrow, Ealing, Redbridge Bromley, Havering,
Jewish Barnet, Redbridge, Westminster Croydon, Newham,
Black-Caribbea Southwark, Hackney, Brent Kingston upon Thames,
Barnet, Hounslow
Bangladeshi Tower Hamlets, Newham Merton, Kensington and
Chelsea, Bexley
Ethnic Segregation in Cities: London
URBAN SEGREGATION: The concentration of different ethnic, religious
or socio-economic groups in different parts of a city
LIC Land use theory:…read more

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Kibera ­ Southern Nairobi, along river Ngong
Tenants have no rights
almost 1 million people, 2,200 people per hectare
no toilet facilities
12ft by 12ft shacks often housing more than 8 people
Economic Activity:
Unemployment rate of 50%
People wasting money on drugs and alcohol
People can't afford the resources available, e.g.…read more

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Vital Stats:
North east in Nairobi
Still classed as shanty settlement
120000 residents have built houses themselves
People can live on their plot, sell it, or rent it
Successes Fails
Many people are living in much better There are too many people in shanty
houses settlements in Nairobi to get them all
through the scheme
They build their own houses, making Many plots have been sold to private
sure it fits their requirements developers and will be made into high
rise apartments
Many people…read more

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Land uses that like to locate in the Rural-Urban fringe:
Science parks
Golf courses
Retail parks
Deprivation and Poverty in HIC
Newham has 40+ multiple index of deprivation
London Docklands Development Corporation 1981-1998
To make the area more attractive
To regenerate the economic situation
To improve the living conditions and prospects of the community
Key Players:
Property Developers
150 hectares more parks and dock paths
17 more conservation areas
200,000 more trees planted
Over 50,000 new houses built…read more

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