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Non Verbal Communication
Verbal communication- conveying messages through vocal words or sounds

Non-verbal communication- conveying messages without the use of words or vocal sounds

Paralinguistics- vocal features that accompany speech


Verbal Communication
Davitz and Davitz (1961)

Aim: To see the effect of paralinguistics on the assessment of emotion

Method: Participants…

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Eye contact and facial expression

Eye Contact
Hess (1963)

Aim: To see the effect of pupil dilation on emotion.

Method: Participants were shown two nearly identical pictures, with the only difference being that
one had dilated pupils, and the other did not. They were asked whicih they found more attractive.…

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Posture, Gesture & Touch
Posture
Postural echo- mirroring another person's body position.

Closed posture- positioning the arms so that they are folded across the body and/or
crossing the legs.

Open posture- positioning the arms so that they are NOT folded across the body and not
crossing legs.

McGinley, Lefevre and…

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Differences in tip could be due to other reasons
Study can be used to peoples advantage
Ecologically valid- real life setting

Touch
Fisher, Rytting and Heslin (1976)

Aim: To see the effect that touch has on attitudes

Method: When giving library books back to female students, a librarian touched half…

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Personal space
Personal space- the distance we keep between each other in day to day life.

Age
Willis (1966)

Aim: To see the effect age has on personal space

Method: Almost 800 individuals were observed in social settings

Results: People of a closer age gap stood closer to each other…

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