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Non Verbal Communication
Verbal communication- conveying messages through vocal words or sounds

Non-verbal communication- conveying messages without the use of words or vocal sounds

Paralinguistics- vocal features that accompany speech

Verbal Communication
Davitz and Davitz (1961)

Aim: To see the effect of paralinguistics on the assessment of emotion

Method: Participants…

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Eye contact and facial expression

Eye Contact
Hess (1963)

Aim: To see the effect of pupil dilation on emotion.

Method: Participants were shown two nearly identical pictures, with the only difference being that
one had dilated pupils, and the other did not. They were asked whicih they found more attractive.…

Page 3

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Posture, Gesture & Touch
Postural echo- mirroring another person's body position.

Closed posture- positioning the arms so that they are folded across the body and/or
crossing the legs.

Open posture- positioning the arms so that they are NOT folded across the body and not
crossing legs.

McGinley, Lefevre and…

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Differences in tip could be due to other reasons
Study can be used to peoples advantage
Ecologically valid- real life setting

Fisher, Rytting and Heslin (1976)

Aim: To see the effect that touch has on attitudes

Method: When giving library books back to female students, a librarian touched half…

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Personal space
Personal space- the distance we keep between each other in day to day life.

Willis (1966)

Aim: To see the effect age has on personal space

Method: Almost 800 individuals were observed in social settings

Results: People of a closer age gap stood closer to each other…


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