Non Verbal Communication- unit 1

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  • Created on: 03-06-13 11:35
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Non Verbal Communication
Verbal communication- conveying messages through vocal words or sounds
Non-verbal communication- conveying messages without the use of words or vocal sounds
Paralinguistics- vocal features that accompany speech
Verbal Communication
Davitz and Davitz (1961)
Aim: To see the effect of paralinguistics on the assessment of emotion
Method: Participants were asked to listen to a number of tape recordings and asked to assess the
emotions of the speaker from the paralinguistic cues: tone of voice, intonation and emphasis.
Method: There was a high level of accuracy in identifying the following emotions: affection,
amusement, disgust and fear.
Conclusion: Paralinguistics has great importance when assessing emotion.
Evaluation points:
Help us to understand how some people might have problems getting verbal information
across to others- if their words contradict their tone of voice.
Carried out in artificial conditions where people were asked to focus on specific parts of
communication- may not convey same results in real life.

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Eye contact and facial expression
Eye Contact
Hess (1963)
Aim: To see the effect of pupil dilation on emotion.
Method: Participants were shown two nearly identical pictures, with the only difference being that
one had dilated pupils, and the other did not. They were asked whicih they found more attractive.
Results: It was found the majority of people found the picture of the girl with the dilated pupils more
attractive, but could not say why.…read more

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Posture, Gesture & Touch
Postural echo- mirroring another person's body position.
Closed posture- positioning the arms so that they are folded across the body and/or
crossing the legs.
Open posture- positioning the arms so that they are NOT folded across the body and not
crossing legs.
McGinley, Lefevre and McGinley (1975)
Aim: To see the effect of open and closed posture in conversation.
Methods: A confederate had a conversation with people in social settings.…read more

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Differences in tip could be due to other reasons
Study can be used to peoples advantage
Ecologically valid- real life setting
Fisher, Rytting and Heslin (1976)
Aim: To see the effect that touch has on attitudes
Method: When giving library books back to female students, a librarian touched half of them on the
arm.…read more

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Personal space
Personal space- the distance we keep between each other in day to day life.
Willis (1966)
Aim: To see the effect age has on personal space
Method: Almost 800 individuals were observed in social settings
Results: People of a closer age gap stood closer to each other than those with a larger age gap
Conclusion: Age difference effects how close people stand next to each other.…read more


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