Slides in this set
· Is defined as ` an act which causes the victim
to apprehend immediate, unlawful force with
the intention to cause fear of immediate
unlawful force...or to be reckless in causing V
to apprehend...'…read more
· Requires an act meaning that an omission is
· Contanza (1997) shows that letters/words
amount to an act
· Ireland (1997) shows that silent phone calls also
amount to an act…read more
`Apprehend immediate, unlawful force'
· There is no assault if it is obvious that D cannot
actually use force.
Lamb (1967)- it was held that pointing an unloaded
gun at someone who knows that it is unloaded is not
an assault, because the V does not fear force.
However, if that person thought the gun was loaded
then there would have been fear, therefore an
Smith (1983)- `immediate' force does not mean
instantaneous, it mean `imminent'.…read more