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Context
· Edward Estlin Cummings was brought up by a
deeply religious family. And he went to Harvard
university. While there he became interested in
modernist poetry, which caused him to play
around with his poems form and structure. Early in
his life, Cummings was known for his pacifism. And
after WW1 he was arrested for his anti-war views,
so he was placed in a prison camp. Some people
say that his experiences in prison were the
stimulus of this poem.…read more

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The poems topic
· The poem is speech given by a Politian.
Through the poem we can see the Politian
battling with the two sides of his personality.
Part of him is a patriot and his other side has
opposing views. The opposing side of him is
almost making a mockery of what the patriot
is saying by adding him his own opinions.…read more

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Form and Structure
· The poem contains very little punctuation,
unusual grammar and no capital letters. But
Cummings has used Enjambment because
without the second line the first like would be
grammatically wrong. The poem has 14 lines
making it a Sonnet and it has a rhyming
scheme of A,B,A,B,C,D,C,D,E,F,G,F,E,G. The
rhyming scheme is a 3 sections, whereas the
poem is in only 2.…read more

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Tone
· The poem has a very ironic and sarcastic tone;
making it a satirical poem. Examples of this is the
lines "then shall the voice of liberty be mute?" and
"why talk of beauty what could be more beaut-iful
than these heroic happy dead ". Through the
poem there are also many deliberate references
to things such as the USA national anthem. These
references highlight the sarcastic tone of the
poem because they show that the speaker is not
speaking from the heart but taking worn-out
phrases from other people; showing they are un
patriotic.…read more

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Language techniques
· Simile ­ "who rushed like lions to the roaring
slaughter"
· Intercontexuality- eg. "Oh say can you see..."
· Metaphors ­ "thy sons"
· Alliteration ­ "heroic happy"
· Rule of 3 ­ "by jingo by gee by gosh"
· Anti-climax ­ "next to of course god america I"…read more

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Comments

charlotte

It's okay good luck with your exams :D

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