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Biology GCSE Revision
VARIATION, REPRODUCTION AND NEW TECHNOLOGY

INHERITANCE

We look like our parents because of the information carried by
GENES. Gamete is a sex cell which has half the chromosome
number of ordinary cells.

The genetic information is carried in the nucleus in your cells. In the
nucleus are…

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CLONING

CLONING PLANTS

Gardeners often produce new plants by taking their cuttings from
older plants. To take a cutting you:

1. Remove a small piece of a plants e.g. stem or leaf
2. Plant it, keeping it in the right conditions, new root and
shoots shall eventually form.

This method…

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CLONING ANIMALS

How to clone animals?

1. Divide each embryo into several individual cells
2. Each cell grows into an identical embryo
3. Transfer embryos into their host mothers, which have been
given hormones to get them ready for pregnancy
4. Identical cloned claves are born. They are not biologically…

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GENETIC ENGINEERING

GENETIC ENGINEERING involves changing the genetic material of an
organism. You take a gene from one organism and transfer it to the
genetic material of a completely different organism.

There is a limit to the types of proteins that bacteria are capable of
making. Scientists have found that…

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enough of vitamin. Golden rice helps them to get a enough amount
of vitamin A.



COORDINATION AND CONTROL

You're NERVOUS SYSTEM helps you to know what is going on in the
world around you. It enable to you to react to your surroundings
and coordinate your behaviour.

Your nervous system…

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HOW DOES YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM WORK?

When a sensory receptor finds a stimulus, the information goes
through special cells called NEURONS. They are found in hundreds
or thousands of neurons also known as NERVES.

The impulse travels along the neuron until it reaches the CENTRAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM OR CNS. The…

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Hormones stimulate the ovaries to produce the female sex
hormone oestrogen

FSH ­ stored in the pituitary gland. It makes eggs mature in
the ovaries. FSH also makes the ovaries to produce oestrogen.
OESTROGEN- stored and made in the ovaries. It stimulates the
lining of the womb to build up…

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Our body temperature is 37 degrees. ENZYMES work best when
controlling your body. Out body controls our temperature many
ways such as sweating can make you cool down and shivering can
warm you up.

They NERVOUS SYSTEM is very important, it responds to changes in
the environment.

Your body cannot…

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Some women want children but simply do not make enough FSH
so no eggs mature in the overies

ARTIFICAL FSH stimulated the egg in the ovary to mature




PLANT HORMONES

WHAT STIMULI DO PLANTS RESPOND TO?

Light/ temperature change ­ shoots grow upward towards
light
Water (moisture)
Gravity (roots growing…

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Plants are sensitive to light. This is called PHOTOTROPISM.

They are also sensitive to gravity (GEOTROPISM) AND MOISTURE.
These responses are coordinated by hormones called Auxins.

Uses of plant hormones:

Killing weeds ­ hormones disrupt normal growth patterns of
weeds
Growing cutting root hormone ­ added to stimulate root
growth…

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