Neuropsychiatry

Head injury

Head trauma can result in an array of mental symptoms. Head trauma most commonly

occurs in people 15 to 25 years of age and has a male ‐to‐female predominance of

approximately 3 to 1.

It is thought that all patients with serious head trauma, more than half of patients with

ongoing neuropsychiatric sequelae resulting from the head trauma.

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Neuropsychiatry:

A. Head injury
Head trauma can result in an array of mental symptoms. Head trauma most commonly
occurs in people 15 to 25 years of age and has a male to female predominance of
approximately 3 to 1.
It is thought that all patients with serious head trauma, more…

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5. irritability or aggression on little or no provocation
6. anxiety, depression, or affective lability
7. changes in personality (e.g., social or sexual inappropriateness)
8. apathy or lack of spontaneity
No specific treatment is suggested. As patients with head trauma may be particularly
susceptible to the side effects of psychotropic…

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of epilepsy, is bizarre in pattern or variable in nature, reflexes are unaltered, incontinence or
self injury including tongue bite are rare, cyanosis or pallor is not present. Serum prolactin
levels rise sharply to a peak at 20 minutes and returns to normal within 1 hour after a
generalised tonic…

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Carbamazepin
e
Block sodium
channels
Dizziness, drowsiness,
ataxia,
agranulocytosis (rare),
cardiac conduction
defects,
hyponatremia, rash
etc.
Induces Cyt P450.
Induces own
metabolism, reduces
levels of OCP,
warfarin, valproate,
antidepressants etc.
Lamotrigine Block sodium
channels
Rash etc. Inhibit Cyt P450.
CBZ reduces levels.
Phenytoin Block sodium
channels
Gabapentin GABA
potentiation
Sedation,…

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REM sleep is characterised by an activated EEG, loss of tone in antigravity muscles,
dreaming, and periodic bursts of rapid eye movements. Nightmares tend to occur in this
stage.
The REM latency is shortened in some patients with depressive disorders, eating disorders,
narcolepsy, Borderline personality disorder, alcohol use disorder and…

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onset (Anticipation). Early onset of Huntington's disease is associated with an affected father
rather than an affected mother Longer repeats in genes inherited through the paternal line
provide a likely explanation of the high incidence of paternal inheritance in juvenile onset
cases.
Prevalence is 5 cases per 100,000 of the…

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contaminated neurosurgical instruments, cannibaliasm kuru Fore tribe PNG). The younger
age groups are mostly affected. EEG, CSF, and MRI are generally less helpful than in
sporadic cases
vCJD (Human BSE)
vCJD: caused by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) like prions derived from infected
beef products. Early features: depression, anxiety, social withdrawal,…

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previously had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. Late ­onset mania often occurs with
CD4 below 200cells/mm3 and cognitive impairment (? At onset AIDS related dementia)
Frequency of AIDS related psychosis and mania 0.5% to 15%. Depression occurs in 30 50%.
AIDS ­related dementia usually begins after 10yrs and with…

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affects women more than men, and often begins at the ages of 20 & 40.
The aetiology is not known but MS is considered to be an autoimmune disease. The
symptoms of MS include: Visual disturbances; muscle weakness; trouble with coordination
and balance; sensations such as numbness, prickling, or pins…

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Cardiac surgery
Predictors associated with postoperative freedom from cardiac symptoms: fewer
preoperative cardiac hospitalisations; low levels of angina, dyspnoea, fatigue, and sleep
problems; low levels of anxiety, depression, hostility, and life change events; and high levels
of psychosocial well being, hopefulness, overall satisfaction, and social support.
Predictors of not requiring…

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