First 463 words of the document:
Define, Decode, Signpost
Criminal behaviour is an act which breaks a formal law, such as murder, whereas deviant behaviour is
that which breaks a norm. Definitions of crime and deviance are socially constructed their definitions
are culturally determined. Patterns of crime are not random, the highest rates are found among the
poor and in areas of social disorganisation (anomie). This is found in the zones of transition (inner city
deprived areas), which is characterised by high unemployment, family instability and poor housing.
When debating (DECODE). It is also important to consider the concept of social control which makes
attempts for society to make its members conform. This is weak which is linked to higher rate of
subcultures. Non-achievers are more likely to develop anti-societal subcultures which are normally a
search for status. In this essay I will discuss (DECODE) in relation to this I will discuss neo-Marxism
which is a contemporary interpretation of traditional Marxism and it says that working class crime is
an active choice against capitalism. In contrast with Marxism, which is often criticised for being too
The CCCS studies
o Claim that WC, criminal subcultures are active response to disadvantage and exploitation.
o Criminal subcultures provide resistance to poverty and unemployment. They are a collective
solution to such disadvantage.
o The CCCS explores sub-cultures styles, they see these as symbols of resistance to dominant
o Studied WC boys who actively created and subcultures as a form of resistance to education.
It was a collective solution to be WC in capitalist society.
o Explored the skinhead subculture of late 1970s. At this time the UK was in economic crisis and
massive unemployment with a dramatic rise in strikes.
o The traditional WC was stationed around factories and was affected the most. Their
communities were disintegrating and there was wide spread poverty. This subculture
emerged as a form of resistance and symbolic celebration of WC life.
o The violently defended their territory from outsiders who they blamed for their problems
o Clarke claims the skinhead subculture reflects the experience of being white, male, WC and
o This subculture is a collective solution to a structurally impose problem.
o Combines both structural and action theory
o It links the active choice of crime to structural inequality and can be applied to a range of
o It is bias celebrates working class culture at the expense of victims of crime
o Cannot be used to explain wcc