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Disagree with Marx that `religion is under control of ruling
class'
= ruling class domination is more effective if it's not involved in
religion
· This apparent independence of religion is called relative
autonomy…read more

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Gramsci (1971)
· Economic forces alone cannot maintain the dominance of the ruling class
· To keep a strong hold on society = ruling class has to persuade the masses
that everything is good and fair for everyone!
· Persuade the masses = hegemony
The ideological control that the ruling-class elite have over the masses
· Religion can develop to support / guide challenges to ruling class
· This is because the church is not directly under control of ruling class…read more

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Religious control isn't inevitable
· If church joined forces with intellectuals it will lead the masses to:
­ challenge the status quo
­ free themselves from oppression
It is possible that religion:
· could become popular with working-class individuals
· can challenge the dominant ruling class ideology
· can support working-class consciousness & liberation
Proletarian
· Need working-class action
· Action must be guided by theoretical ideas
· Industrial working class must produce its own intellectuals to:
1. articulate working class experience
2. shape working class consciousness…read more

Slide 5

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Maduro (1982)
· Also supports idea of relative autonomy
· Church can provide guidance for the oppressed in their struggle with
ruling class
E.g. Latin America
· Religion isn't always a conservative force
· Religion can actually be revolutionary!
For example: Catholicism in South America
· Catholic priests criticize + act against bourgeoisie interests
· Oppressed people are banned from protesting
· Put pressure on priests to take up their cause / fight their corner…read more

Slide 6

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Evaluation
· It does address the weaknesses of the Marxist theory
Example:
Admitting that religion can actually open eyes of the oppressed...
encouraging them to take action!
· Logical sense
Example:
Religion has often supported the powerful
Religion has often provided comfort to the oppressed…read more

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