nature of memory

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Capacity- miller asked Lab experiment- lacks Capacity- assume its No direct evidence- so
participants to recall ever ecological validity unlimited as it can't be tested the assumption may be
lengthening lists of letters Other evidence (Simon) as the 2 reasons for forgetting wrong
found most could remember 7 can't be separated
shows it's not the size of
+/- 2 chunks (displacement- when the
the chunk but the speed capacity is full and retrieval
at which the chunk is failure)
said, if a chunk is spoken
quickly then more chunks
can be remembered
Duration- mr and mrs Lab experiment- lack Duration- Bahrick Field experiment- real
Peterson nonsense trigrams ecological validity as it participants recall life information so good
distractor task (count back in uses meaningless names/information, recognise ecological validity as it
3's) used to prevent individuals from school
information, so duration uses meaningful
maintenance rehearsal. Interval yearbooks. Found that over 50
between trials increased by 3 may be longer in real life years recognition stays stable information
seconds each time (3, 6, 9, 12, if information used is but recall declines. This shows Practice effects-
15, 18 seconds). Found that important that memories can last at least repeated testing may
after 18 seconds 95% of the Tightly controlled 50 years but there are issues boost memory so the
information was lost. Duration environment- so duration with retrieving the information actual LTM may not last
is 15-18 seconds is accurately measured as retrieval declines over time as long
so duration of LTM is 50+yrs
Individual differences
(extraneous variables) as
some people may have

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Encoding- Conrad list of Lab experiment- lack Encoding- Baddeley 4 lists of Lab experiment- lack
letters either acoustically ecological validity as it words 9simantically similar and ecological validity as it
similar or dissimilar. Had to uses meaningless dissimilar and acoustically uses meaningless
recall letters in order, found similar and dissimilar). Long
information, so duration information, so duration
made more mistakes and time delay, asked to recall in
muddled up order for may be longer in real life order.…read more


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