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Useful adaptations become more common in populations of species because of evolution by natural selection:

1. Individuals within a population show variation in their phenotypes.
2. Predation, disease and competition create a struggle for survival.
3. Individuals with better adaptations are more likely to survive, reproduce and pass…

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Sampling Methods:

Quadrats: counting individuals and calculating a percentage cover.
Mark-Release-Recapture: Use proportion of marked in recapture to estimate whole population.

You can measure diversity within a species by looking at genetic diversity; the variety of alleles in the gene pool of a species. This can be
done by:



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