National conflict case study: Rwanda Conflict

Notes on the Rwandan conflict, a case study for AQA Humanities, conflict and co-operation. Includes causes, effects and resolutions.

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  • Created on: 17-05-11 20:43
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Rwanda Conflict
Example of a National Conflict
CAUSES
Long-term
Always been TENSIONS between TUTSI minority and HUTU majority
Animosity grew from COLONIAL PERIOD:
1. 1916: BELGIAN COLONISTS ARRIVE- produce identity cards classifying people according to
ethnicity
2. Belgians considered TUTSI's SUPERIOR ­ For next 20 YEARS Tutsi's enjoyed better
lifestyle/jobs/education etc. ­ INJUSTICE
3. PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSE: Resentment from HUTU'S built up ­ Series of riots in 1959
(20,000 Tutsi's killed)
4. 1962- BELGIANS LEAVE- RWANDA HAS INDEPENDENCE
5. Hutus take over Tutsis- next few years: TUTSI's scapegoats for every crisis
6. ECONOMIC SITUATION WORSENED
7. President loses popularity
8. RPF formed- aim to overthrow president
9. August 1993- Peace accord signed between president and RPF- VIOLENCE DOES NOT
STOP
Short-term
Sparked by DEATH of Rwandan president (A HUTU) ­ plane shot down on April 6 1994
WHO KILLED HIM? ­ French Judge ruled that it was current Rwandan President a
tutsi- he however claims it was by Hutu extremists
KEY EVENTs
April 6- president assassinated
Between April and June 1994- 800,000 killed in 100 days- mostly TUTSIs
JULY- RPF capture capital, 2 Million Hutus flee to Congo
Bodies of dead Tutsis thrown into river
Presidential guard initiated campaign of RETRIBUTION
leaders of opposition murdered
Slaughter of TUTSI'S and moderate hutus
Unofficial militia group mobilised
Soldiers/police encourage civilians to take part- give incentives
UN TROOPS WITHDREW after murder of 10 soldiers

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EFFECTS
Short-term
Government collapses
RPF declare ceasefire- VICTORIOUS
Multi-ethnic government set up
The pair end up falling out
Tutsi leader stays in power
Presence of Hutu militants in Congo lead to conflict there ­ 5 MILLION DEAD
Tutsi government invades Congo twice- want to wipe out hutu forces
Long-term
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
PEOPLE TRAUMATIZED
PHYSICAL PROBLEMS
POLITICAL PROBLEMS; Multi ethnic gvt form but fall out
AIDS VICTIMS- many women were raped by militia- passed on to kids
DESTROYED INFRASTRUCTURE
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS: poverty, people need medical care,…read more

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