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1. Naked mole rats show various adaptations to their particular environment. Give
an example of these adaptations exhibited by these animals.

Behavioural adaptation:

Physiological adaptation:

Anatomical adaptation:

2. Give examples of features that help thermoregulation in most mammals that are
reduced or absent in naked mole rats and explain how…

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7. Suggest what processes would be altered by the cancer causing genes.

Cancer cells do not respond to the processes that control the cell cycle. Two types of gene have a
role in control of the cell cycle and play a part in triggering cancer:

Oncogenes code for proteins that…

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The centromeres split, the spindle fibres shorten, pulling the two halves of each centromere
in opposite directions.
One chromatid of each chromosome is pulled to each of the poles.


The chromosomes unravel and the nuclear envelope reforms, so that the two sets of genetic
information become enclosed in separate…

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This is known as the reflex arc and is responsible for our reflexes - rapid, involuntary responses to

15. Describe the responses that humans would show if they were breathing air with
5% carbon dioxide, and explain how these responses are brought about.

16. A brain deprived of oxygen…

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Therefore the hypoxia resistant alleles have been passed on through the generations due to
natural selection.

18. Use of modern scanning techniques has transformed our understanding of the
localisation of function in the brain. Describe how FMRI can be used to study brain
function and compare this with early techniques…

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1. Firstly DNA polymerase, nucleotides, the forensic sample and DNA primers (short DNA
sequences complementary to the DNA adjacent to the STR marked with fluorescent tags) are
placed into a test tube.
2. At 95 degrees the hydrogen bonds are broken between the 2 strands of DNA.
3. At 55…


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