Mycoprotein and Microorganism in Food

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Yamuna
  • Created on: 01-06-14 14:02
Preview of Mycoprotein and Microorganism in Food

First 383 words of the document:

Mycoprotein is a food made by continuous fermentation of the fungus, Fusarium gramineurum. The
fungus is grown in a large fermentation tower to which oxygen, nitrogen, glucose, minerals, and
vitamins are continually added. After harvesting, the fungus is heat treated to reduce its RNA
content to World Health Organisation recommended levels before being filtered and drained. The
resulting sheet of fungal mycelia is mixed with egg albumen which acts a binder. Flavouring and
colouring may also be added. The mycoprotein is then textured to resemble meat, before being
sliced, diced or shredded. Mycoprotein is a source of protein, fibre, biotin, iron and zinc, and is low
in saturated fat.
Mycoprotein has been developed by Rank Hovis McDougall, and is marketed under the name of
Quorn by Marlow Foods Ltd (owned by Astra Zeneca ). A wide range of Quorn ready meals are
available including curries, pies, and casseroles, and it may also be purchased as chilled Quorn
chunks. These may be grilled, sauteed, baked or casseroled.
Mycoprotein is potentially a very useful food item for vegetarians. Since early 2000 the Quorn deli
and ingredients ranges have been approved by the Vegetarian Society since the albumin used as
a binder in its manufacture has been changed in those ranges from a non free range to a free range
egg source. However at present the ranges of ready meals, burgers, sausages etc still use eggs
from a non free range source
Mycoprotein is a food material derived from the mycelium of a species of the fungus Fusarium.
(Misleadingly, it is sometimes referred to as an example of single cell protein (SCP)).
Fusarium graminearum is the conidial stage of the Ascomycote fungus Gibberella zeae. The
fungus exists mainly as a saprobiont in soil, although it is capable of parasitising wheat and other
cereals. It has a mycelium of narrow, branched and septate hyphae. This basis for a naturally
fibrous (and therefore 'chewy') texture has been exploited in the formulation of meat analogues.
The material is marketed under the brand name QuornTM. Teachers are recommended to obtain
the useful teaching pack, available from the QuornTM Education Service.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The fermenters currently being used to manufacture mycoprotein are 40m high (similar in height
to Nelson's column). The fermenters run continuously for six weeks, after which there is a two
week period for cleaning and preparing the fermenter for the next run. During the six week run,
there is a steady input of nutrients and a corresponding output of medium containing the
product.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Stringent precautions are taken to avoid contamination with unwanted organisms which would
ruin the product and compete with Fusarium for the substrate. These include the initial
sterilisation of the fermenter, using steam. The incoming nutrients are heat sterilised and a filtered
air supply is used. Conditions within the fermenter are monitored by means of probes.
Adjustments to pH, temperature, nutrient concentration and oxygen supply can be made as
required to secure the optimum growth rate.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Fat 3.5
Carbohydrate 2.0
Sodium 0.24
Cholesterol 0.0
Water 75.0
(The remaining mass includes a wide variety of minerals and vitamins, particularly zinc and
vitamin B 12, as well as compounds such as nucleic acids).
Recall of this data is not required but candidates may be expected to use information of this
type, as well as data comparing the nutrient content of mycoprotein products with that of other
foods, in assessing the value of mycoprotein.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

The sole current use for mycoprotein is as the major ingredient in the manufacture of QuornTM meatfree
products. The process involved in their manufacture includes simulating meat product structures by
binding the mycoprotein cells together with the other ingredients in the recipe. This mimics the muscle
fibre / connective tissue interaction in muscle tissue.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

CSPI applauded Quorn's creators for trying to market a nutritious meat substitute with a low
impact on the environment, but insists that it be labelled honestly and studied more thoroughly.
"You can see why AstraZeneca would rather associate its product with mushrooms and
vegetables than with fungus, but their marketing problems are no excuse to deceive consumers,"
Jacobson wrote.
Mycoprotein is set to take over from soya protein as the next new ingredient.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Animal products are the major sources
of dietary saturated fat.
The best dietary sources of complex carbohydrates and fibre (also called nonstarch
polysaccharides or NSP's) include wholegrain cereals, vegetables and pulses and so
vegetarian diets tend to be high in these nutrients. Animal products contain no fibre or
complex carbohydrate.
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of protective antioxidant nutrients
in the diet found in fresh fruit and vegetables. These antioxidant nutrients include the
betacarotene form of vitamin A, vitamin C and E.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Repeated studies have demonstrated the low
blood cholesterol levels of vegetarians (Resnicow, 1991). Thorogood (1990) found
vegetarians to have cholesterol levels 10% lower than health conscious meateaters.
High blood cholesterol is a primary risk factor in heart disease. Significantly,
vegetarians have lower levels of lowdensitylipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This is the
cholesterol fraction particularly associated with heart disease.
Research has suggested that a 10% reduction in blood cholesterol may be associated
with a 30% reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease (Martin, 1986).…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Cummings & Bingham, 1998).
Sir Kenneth Calman, Chief Medical Officer, has stated (1997) that "there is a
relationship between eating red meat and cancer".
The Oxford Vegetarian Study found cancer mortality to be 39% lower among
vegetarians compared with meateaters (Thorogood, 1994).
A study of 23,000 largely vegetarian Seventh Day Adventists found cancer mortality
rates to be 5070% of those of the general population for several cancer sites
unrelated to smoking or alcohol (Phillips, 1975).…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Sabate, 1992). Later age of menarche is believed to lower the risk of breast cancer in
adult life.
Other Cancers
Studies have shown vegetarians to suffer less from various other cancers.
Mills (1989) studied the incidence of prostate cancer amongst 14,000 Seventh Day
Adventists and found a relationship between increased risk and increasing animal
product consumption.
Mills (1988) also found pancreatic cancer to be associated with consumption of animal
products. Increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and pulses was shown to have a
protective effect.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »