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Mycoprotein is a food made by continuous fermentation of the fungus, Fusarium gramineurum. The
fungus is grown in a large fermentation tower to which oxygen, nitrogen, glucose, minerals, and
vitamins are continually added. After harvesting, the fungus is heat treated to reduce its RNA
content to World Health Organisation…

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The fermenters currently being used to manufacture mycoprotein are 40m high (similar in height
to Nelson's column). The fermenters run continuously for six weeks, after which there is a two
week period for cleaning and preparing the fermenter for the next run. During the six week run,
there is a…

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Stringent precautions are taken to avoid contamination with unwanted organisms which would
ruin the product and compete with Fusarium for the substrate. These include the initial
sterilisation of the fermenter, using steam. The incoming nutrients are heat sterilised and a filtered
air supply is used. Conditions within the fermenter are…

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Fat 3.5
Carbohydrate 2.0
Sodium 0.24
Cholesterol 0.0
Water 75.0
(The remaining mass includes a wide variety of minerals and vitamins, particularly zinc and
vitamin B 12, as well as compounds such as nucleic acids).
Recall of this data is not required but candidates may be expected to use information…

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The sole current use for mycoprotein is as the major ingredient in the manufacture of QuornTM meatfree
products. The process involved in their manufacture includes simulating meat product structures by
binding the mycoprotein cells together with the other ingredients in the recipe. This mimics the muscle
fibre / connective tissue…

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CSPI applauded Quorn's creators for trying to market a nutritious meat substitute with a low
impact on the environment, but insists that it be labelled honestly and studied more thoroughly.
"You can see why AstraZeneca would rather associate its product with mushrooms and
vegetables than with fungus, but their marketing…

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saturated fat compared with nonvegetarians. Animal products are the major sources
of dietary saturated fat.
The best dietary sources of complex carbohydrates and fibre (also called nonstarch
polysaccharides or NSP's) include wholegrain cereals, vegetables and pulses and so
vegetarian diets tend to be high in these nutrients. Animal products contain…

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cholesterol levels seen in vegetarians. Repeated studies have demonstrated the low
blood cholesterol levels of vegetarians (Resnicow, 1991). Thorogood (1990) found
vegetarians to have cholesterol levels 10% lower than health conscious meateaters.
High blood cholesterol is a primary risk factor in heart disease. Significantly,
vegetarians have lower levels of lowdensitylipoprotein…

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(Cummings & Bingham, 1998).
Sir Kenneth Calman, Chief Medical Officer, has stated (1997) that "there is a
relationship between eating red meat and cancer".
The Oxford Vegetarian Study found cancer mortality to be 39% lower among
vegetarians compared with meateaters (Thorogood, 1994).
A study of 23,000 largely vegetarian Seventh Day…

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(Sabate, 1992). Later age of menarche is believed to lower the risk of breast cancer in
adult life.

Other Cancers
Studies have shown vegetarians to suffer less from various other cancers.
Mills (1989) studied the incidence of prostate cancer amongst 14,000 Seventh Day
Adventists and found a relationship between increased…


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