MUST KNOW DEFINITIONS FOR OCR F322 (seriously helpfull)

copied straight from the text book.. all definitions you need to know for the exam!!

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 02-05-12 20:15
Preview of MUST KNOW DEFINITIONS FOR OCR F322 (seriously helpfull)

First 156 words of the document:

Chemistry Definitions F322
Hydrocarbon: organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon
Saturated hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon with single bonds only
Unsaturated hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon
multiple bonds
Aliphatic hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined
together in straight or branched chains
Alicylclic hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined
together in a ring structure
Functional group: the part of the organic molecule responsible for its
chemical reactions
Homologous series: series of organic compounds with the same
functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
Alkanes: homologous series with the general formula CnH2n+2
Alkyl group: an alkane with a hydrogen atom removed eg CH3
General formula: the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a
homologous series
Displayed formula: shows the relative positioning of all the atoms in a
molecule and all the bonds between them

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Structural formula: shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of
atoms in a molecule
Skeletal formula: simplified organic formula with hydrogen atoms
removed from alkyl chains leaving just a carbon skeleton and
associated functional groups
Structural isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula but
with different structural arrangements of atoms
Steroisomers: compounds with the same structural formula, but a
different arrangement of the atoms in space
E/Z Isomerism: type of stereoisomerism in which different groups
attached to each carbon of a c=c double bond may…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Neucleophile: an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an
electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donated a pair of electrons
to form a new covalent bond
Electrophile: an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an
electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to
form a new covalent bond
: electron pair acceptor
Addition reaction: reaction in which a reactant is added to an
unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
: electron pair donor…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Mechanism: a sequence of steps showing the path taken my electrons
in a reaction
Initiation: the first step in a radical substitution in which the free
radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation
Propagation: the two repeated steps in radical substitution that build
up the products in a chain reaction
Termination: step at the end of a radical substitution when two
radicals combine to form a molecule
Pi bond: reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the
plane of bonded atoms by sideways…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Addition polymer: a very long molecular chain formed by repeated
addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules
Repeat unit: specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the
structure over and over again, Repeat units are included in brackets,
outside of which is the symbol n
Biodegradable material: a material that is broken down naturally in
the environment by living organisms
Volatility: the ease that a liquid turns into a gas.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Molecular Ion M+: the positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when
a molecule loses an electron
Fragmentation: the process in mass spectrometry that causes a
positive ion to split into pieces, one of which is a positive fragment ion
Enthalpy, H: the heat content that is stored in a chemical system
Exothermic: refers to a reaction in which the enthalpy or the products
is smaller than the enthalpy of the reactants, result in heat loss to the
surroundings (H-ve)
Endothermic: refers to a reaction in…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Standard enthalpy change of combustion: the enthalpy change that
takes place when one mole of a substance reacts completely with
oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in
their standard states
Standard enthalpy change of formation: the enthalpy change that
takes place when one mole of a compound id formed from its
constituent elements in their standard states under standard
Specific heat capacity, c: the energy required to raise the
temperature of 1g of a substance by 1°C
Bond enthalpy: the enthalpy…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Homogeneous catalysis: catalysis of a reaction in which the catalyst
and reactants are in the same physical state
Dynamic Equilibrium: the equilibrium that exists in a closed system
when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the
reverse reaction
Le Chatlier's principle: this states that when a system in dynamic
equilibrium is subject to a change, the position of the equilibrium will
shift to minimise the change
Troposphere: Lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere extending from
the earth's surface up…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »