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Chemistry Definitions F322

Hydrocarbon: organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon

Saturated hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon with single bonds only

Unsaturated hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon
multiple bonds

Aliphatic hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined
together in straight or branched chains

Alicylclic hydrocarbon: hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined
together in a ring…

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Structural formula: shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of
atoms in a molecule

Skeletal formula: simplified organic formula with hydrogen atoms
removed from alkyl chains leaving just a carbon skeleton and
associated functional groups

Structural isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula but
with different structural arrangements of atoms…

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Neucleophile: an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an
electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donated a pair of electrons
to form a new covalent bond

Electrophile: an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an
electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a…

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Mechanism: a sequence of steps showing the path taken my electrons
in a reaction

Initiation: the first step in a radical substitution in which the free
radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation

Propagation: the two repeated steps in radical substitution that build
up the products in a chain reaction


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Addition polymer: a very long molecular chain formed by repeated
addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules

Repeat unit: specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the
structure over and over again, Repeat units are included in brackets,
outside of which is the symbol n

Biodegradable material: a material that…

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Molecular Ion M+: the positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when
a molecule loses an electron

Fragmentation: the process in mass spectrometry that causes a
positive ion to split into pieces, one of which is a positive fragment ion

Enthalpy, H: the heat content that is stored in a chemical…

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Standard enthalpy change of combustion: the enthalpy change that
takes place when one mole of a substance reacts completely with
oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in
their standard states

Standard enthalpy change of formation: the enthalpy change that
takes place when one mole of a compound…

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Homogeneous catalysis: catalysis of a reaction in which the catalyst
and reactants are in the same physical state

Dynamic Equilibrium: the equilibrium that exists in a closed system
when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the
reverse reaction

Le Chatlier's principle: this states that…


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