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Short and long term effects while training.
· The effects of exercise on the muscles.
· Short term/immediate effects
· Little effects on bones and joints.
· Increased flow of blood to working muscles.
· Muscles contract more often and more quickly.
· Muscles take up more oxygen from the blood
· More of the muscle fibres contract
· Rise in temperature.
· Long term/after training effects
· Bone width and density increases
· Strengthens muscles tendons and ligaments surrounding joints
· Joints cartilage thickens improving shock absorption at joints
· Increased range of movement and joint (flexibility)
· Muscles adjust to greater workload…read more

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Types of contractions.
· What movement it allows.
· Isometric: Isometric in this type of contraction the muscle actually says the same length, so there
is no movement of the muscle or body part that is attached, e.g. the quadriceps during a ski squat.
· Isotonic Sometimes muscles will contract while lengthening, acting as a brake like a brake to
control the movement.
· There are two types of isotonic muscle contraction;
· Concentric This is the main type of muscle contraction. In this type of contraction, the muscle
gets shorter and the two ends of the muscle move closer together.
· Eccentric In this type of muscle contraction, the muscle actually increases in length while still
producing tension. The two ends of the muscle move further apart. For example in the lowering
phase of a bicep curl, the biceps are working eccentrically to control the lowering of the weight.…read more

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Sporting actions and muscle's used
· Kicking a ball in football.
· Muscles being used...
· Supporting leg- quadriceps Kicking legs- quadriceps, gastrocnemius,
hamstrings and gluteus maximus.
· Type of muscle contraption
· Isotonic contraction.
· Leg bending behind- concentric contraction Leg follows though to kick ­
Eccentric…read more

Slide 5

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Tennis serve.
· Muscles being used.
· Arm- biceps, triceps, deltoids.
· Legs- quadriceps hamstrings gastrocemius.
· Type of muscle contraption.
· Isotonic contraction in the arm.
· Legs run forward -eccentric.…read more


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