Muscle revision - Biology OCR F215 module 4

A document I have made using the OCR textbook for biology, CGP textbook, and own knowledge on muscles.

The document includes information on:

- muscle types

- in depth knowledge of voluntary/striated muscle

- the sliding filament theory

- coordination of movement

- neuromuscular junctions

Hope they help!

A whole document, which includes this, plus the rest of module 4, F215 will be upload in the next few days.

Good luck with revision and A-level exams!

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Types of muscle

There are three muscle types

1. Involuntary muscle
2. Cardiac muscle
3. Voluntary / striated/ skeletal muscle

1) Involuntary muscle
These are stimulated by neurones of the autonomic nervous system
Hence, these muscles cannot be controlled voluntarily
Contain small bundles of actin and myosin, but are not…

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3. Skeletal muscle
Skeletal muscle is made up of many fibres
found in bundles

Each fibre is a separate cell

The name of the cell surface membrane is the

Parts of the sarcolemma fold inwards and stick
to the sarcoplasm, forming Transverse tubules

The transverse tubules allow the spread…

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The sliding filament theory

Myosin and actin filaments slide over each other to make the sarcomeres contract
When lots of sarcomeres contract simultaneously, myofibrils and muscle fibres contract
Relaxation of the muscles (i.e. the removal of calcium ions from the sarcoplasm) return
the sarcomeres to their original shape


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3. The breaking of the cross bridge
The ATP provides enough energy to
also break the stable cross bridge
The breakage detaches the actin
filament, and it is removed
The actin head returns to its original
position, allowing it to bind with
another binding site
Because the head it back…

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Neuromuscular junction

A neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a motor neurone and a muscle cell.

The neurotransmitter at this type of junction is acetyl choline, and the receptors to which they bind to
are nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

This type of junction works in the same way as the synapses…


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