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Sensory Memory
Immediate nerve memory, five senses.
- Seeing ­ stored as images
Encoding - Hearing ­ stored as sound
Five senses - Touch ­ stored as feelings
- Smell
- Taste
Capacity Research: Sperling (1960), Grid of letters for a
4-10 items sec.
Duration Found: People recalled 4/6 . Iconic memory
2 seconds could hold up to 10 items, but decays before
recollection.…read more

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Short Term Memory
Remember events in present or immediate past for a short period of time.
Research: Conrad (1964) ­ Showed pp letters one by one.
Encoding Found: Acoustically similar (rhyming), harder then dissimilar to
Acoustically recall.
Suggests: Encodes acoustically, even though showed visually.
Research 1: Miller (1956) ­ Showed pp flashes of dots, digits,
letters and words...
Capacity Found: 5-9 things could be remembered .
7+\-2 Research 2: Jacobs (1887)
Found: Average span ­ 9.3 items for letters.
­ 7.3 items for letters.
Research: Peterson and Peterson (1959) ­ showed pp trigrams, and
recall combination of 3 letters after longer and longer intervals, and
were prevented from rehearsing by a counting task.
Duration Found: 90% was remembered at 3 second intervals, and 2% at 18
18-30 seconds second intervals.
Suggests: When rehearsal's prevented, STM lasts around 20 secs…read more

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Long Term Memory
Remembering things for a long period of time, events that have occurred in the more distant past.
Research: Baddeley (1996) ­ listed 10 short semantically similar
words, one by one.
Encoding Found: After 20mins , did poorly on ss words.
Semantically
Suggests: In LTM we encode according to what the meaning is,
so we get similar meaning things
Capacity Research: Bahrick et al (1975) ­ Tested US graduates, showed
Unlimited
them class photo
Duration Found: 90% accurately remembered classmates after 34years,
Unlimited after 48 years it decreased.…read more

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Evaluation
Research: (Glanzer and Cunitz) Read out list of
words, and asked them to recall as many
possible.
Found: Recalled more of start and end words.
Supports: There's a separate STM and LTM.
First = better LTM, Last = better STM. Research: The case of HM (1940's) ­ lobotomy.
Found: Wasn't able to form new LTM.
He kept his procedural memory (for skills), but
not his episodic (for events).
Clive wearing case study. Supports: Peterson &Peterson = diff LTM
BBC presenter, got amnesia. stores.
Still knew how to speak and play piano,
but at beginning had violent behavior.
= separate stores. Research: Brain scanning research, MRI
scan, which parts of brain are in use.
Found: Decision making ­ STM
Remembering new info ­ LTM
Support: diff stores for diff memories.…read more

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Strengths
· Strong evidence to support it
· Provides structure and process
· Clear predictions of memory, so psychologists can conduct experiments.
Weaknesses
· Supporting evidence lakhs validity (relates to semantic memory
(remembering words/digits) not other aspect of memory)
· Studies are large laboratory experiments ­ high controlled but ­ demands
characteristics and experimenter bias.
· Oversimplified.
· One way process, STM to LTM.…read more

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