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Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Multi store model.

Main process

Info from environment received by sensory store.
Some info in STSS attended to processed into STM
Some info processed in STM is transferred to LTM through rehearsal.
Longer rehearsal, stronger memory trace.
Main emphasis on rehearsal on memory.

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Shortterm sensory store

Different store for each sense ­ vision (iconic store), touch and sound (echoic store).
These are modality specific.
Very short duration
Information is not processed here, just held until brain can decide whether to discard or
transfer to short term memory.

Iconic store ­ duration and capacity…

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Short term sensory store ­ echoic

Modality specific

Treisman (1964) Method

P. listen message in each ear
Listen + repeat
Messages identical, but one delayed.

Treisman Results

P. only noticed messages same if interval 2 seconds or less.

Treisman conclusion

Maximum duration 2 seconds

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STM Store

Temporary store for info
Limited capacity and short duration ( unless maintained through rehearsal)


Peterson and Peterson Method (1959)

24 students tested on recall. (presented one at a time)
Shown trigrams of meaningless consonants.
P. shown trigram, then counted backwards in threes or fours until flashing light…

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STM Baddeley method (1975)

Reading speed measured
Show 5 sets of words
Mixture monosyllabic and polysyllabic words
P. wrote down 5 words in serial order, recalled several lists.


P. recalled more short than long words
Recall as many words they could articulate in 2 seconds
Strong (+) correlation…

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Long term memory

Relatively permanent store
Unlimited capacity and duration

Different kinds of LTM

Episodic (memory of personal events)
Semantic (facts and information)
Procedural (actions and skills)

Bahrick (1975) Duration of LTM


392 graduates shown old high school year book photos
2 groups
Recognition ­ given both a list…

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Strengths of the MSM

(+) Brain damaged patients, support the view of two different memory stores

(+) There is a difference in duration of information in STM and LTM. Unrehearsed information
in STM vanishes after 20 seconds or so as evidence by Pete+ Pete study. Some info still
present 48…

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Working Memory

Key Features

Central executive

Problem solving and decision making
Controls attention, planning and synthesising info, from both subsidiary systems and
Flexible, process info from any modality
Limited storage capacity, so attend to limited number of things

The Phonological Loop

Stores limited amounts of speech based sounds for…

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Evidence for phonological loop

Baddeley et al (1975) word length effect ­ rehearsal prevented by repeating irrelevant
sound (la la la) word length effect disappears.
Assumed that articulatory suppression task fills phonological loop
Removes advantage of rehearsal


Component least known about is most important (central executive) limited capacity,


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