Multi store model and working memory

A look into both MSM and working memory

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Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Multi store model.
Main process
Info from environment received by sensory store.
Some info in STSS attended to processed into STM
Some info processed in STM is transferred to LTM through rehearsal.
Longer rehearsal, stronger memory trace.
Main emphasis on rehearsal on memory.

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Shortterm sensory store
Different store for each sense ­ vision (iconic store), touch and sound (echoic store).
These are modality specific.
Very short duration
Information is not processed here, just held until brain can decide whether to discard or
transfer to short term memory.
Iconic store ­ duration and capacity
Limited duration but large capacity.
Sperling's study (method) (1960)
Laboratory experiment
P. shown matrix 12 letters, arranged in 3 rows.
Presented briefly ­ 50 milliseconds.
P. asked to recall either all of part of matrix.…read more

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Short term sensory store ­ echoic
Modality specific
Treisman (1964) Method
P. listen message in each ear
Listen + repeat
Messages identical, but one delayed.
Treisman Results
P. only noticed messages same if interval 2 seconds or less.…read more

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STM Store
Temporary store for info
Limited capacity and short duration ( unless maintained through rehearsal)
Duration
Peterson and Peterson Method (1959)
24 students tested on recall. (presented one at a time)
Shown trigrams of meaningless consonants.
P. shown trigram, then counted backwards in threes or fours until flashing light
appeared. ( this was to prevent rehearsal)
Fixed durations between trigram shown and trigram recalled. ( 3,6,9,12,15 and 18)
Findings
As delay increased, ability to recall decreased.
No P.…read more

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Capacity
STM Baddeley method (1975)
Reading speed measured
Show 5 sets of words
Mixture monosyllabic and polysyllabic words
P. wrote down 5 words in serial order, recalled several lists.
Findings
P. recalled more short than long words
Recall as many words they could articulate in 2 seconds
Strong (+) correlation between reading speed and memory span.
Conclusion
Immediate memory span represents number of items that can be articulated in approx, 2
seconds.…read more

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Long term memory
Relatively permanent store
Unlimited capacity and duration
Different kinds of LTM
Episodic (memory of personal events)
Semantic (facts and information)
Procedural (actions and skills)
Bahrick (1975) Duration of LTM
Method
392 graduates shown old high school year book photos
2 groups
Recognition ­ given both a list of names and pictures, then asked to match
Recall ­ name photos without the aid of the name list
Results (Recognition)
90% 14 years
80% 25 years
75% 34 years
60% 47 years
(Recall)
60%…read more

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Strengths of the MSM
(+) Brain damaged patients, support the view of two different memory stores
(+) There is a difference in duration of information in STM and LTM. Unrehearsed information
in STM vanishes after 20 seconds or so as evidence by Pete+ Pete study.…read more

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Working Memory
Key Features
Central executive
Problem solving and decision making
Controls attention, planning and synthesising info, from both subsidiary systems and
LTM
Flexible, process info from any modality
Limited storage capacity, so attend to limited number of things
The Phonological Loop
Stores limited amounts of speech based sounds for brief periods.…read more

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Evidence for phonological loop
Baddeley et al (1975) word length effect ­ rehearsal prevented by repeating irrelevant
sound (la la la) word length effect disappears.
Assumed that articulatory suppression task fills phonological loop
Removes advantage of rehearsal
Weaknesses
Component least known about is most important (central executive) limited capacity,
unable to quantify.
Richardson (1984) problems specifying the exact function of the CE. Terminology is
vague, can be used to explain any type of results. So give rise to circular argument.…read more

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