Mt Pinatubo

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Mt. Pinatubo 1991
Mount Pinatubo is part of a chain of composite volcanoes along the Luzon arc on
the west coast of the island
Eruption had a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6- Explosive eruption
The events of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption began in July 1990, when a
magnitude 7.8 earthquake occurred 100 kilometers (62 miles) northeast of the
Pinatubo region, determined to be a result of the reawakening of Mount
Pinatubo-Eurasian/Philippine plate margin
Dormant since 1380
Minimal awareness of hazard- when it first showed signs of eruption, people
thought it was no big deal.
Fertile soils- farming
Established foreign business's eg Clark Airbase in Subic Bay
Ash and Steam-->pyroclastic flow destroyed homes- 300 died by Lahar
On April 2, small explosions from vents dusted local villages with ash. The first
evacuations of 5,000 people were ordered later that month in total nearly 60
00 people were evacuated from a 20 km evacuation zone that was set up prior
to the earthquake
The eruption lasted for nine hours (Over 90% of the material released from the
volcano was ejected during the nine hour eruption) and the collapse of the
summit of Mount Pinatubo created a caldera. The caldera reduced the peak
from 1745 meters to 1485 meters high and is 2.5 kilometers in diameter.
The ash cloud from this huge eruption rose35 km into the air
Huge avalanches of red hot ash, gas, and pumice fragments called pyroclastic
flows roared down the sides of Mount Pinatubo
Effects
Primary effects:
Ash & mud destroyed crops-The economy of central Luzon was horribly
disrupted
Mount Pinatubo ejected between 15 and 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide gas
Most of the 200 to 800 people (accounts vary) who died during the eruption
died due to the weight of the ash collapsing roofs and killing to occupants- Had
Tropical Storm Yunya not been nearby, the death toll from the volcano would
have been much lower.
Respiratory and disease
1million animals died
$700 million damages
700 deaths (600 of these from disease and 70 from lahars )
1.2 million people lost homes
In 1991, the volcano destroyed 4,979 homes and damaged another 70,257

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Secondary effects:
Roads damaged making aid difficult
Crop planting impossible until 1992-Economic
Respiratory disease
The following year 3,281 homes were destroyed and 3,137 were damaged.…read more

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