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Mount Etna

Mount Etna is Europe's most active volcano. Etna
is one of the largest continental volcanoes.

The structure of Mt Etna consists of a series of
nested composite volcanoes, characterised by
summit calderas, the most important one being
the Ellittico Caldera, which formed about

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1669- Lava flows engulfed a village
1928- Lava flow destroyed town of Mascali in two days
1992- Eruption led to lava flowing towards Zafferena

Etna Eruption 2002

The 2002 eruption is one of the largest Etna eruptions for many years the eruption threw
up a huge column of ash,…

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Mitigation Methods
Damming or diverting flows (Needs dense material Needs wide base)
EG Zafferena, however the barriers where overtaken by lava

Water cooling
Slows advance of lava flow front
Water must be sprayed onto front & flank
1973 - Iceland (Island of Heimay)

Interception near vent
Reduces force to…


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