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1. Ethical egoism
Ought to maximise our own good.
Maximising own good can help others e.g => Mother is happy when she makes child happy
2. Problems
Egoist would not want other egoists -> needs everyone else to be truthful
Means egoist cannot universalise egoism.

1. Psychological Egoism…

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State of nature = no laws, no gov, only competing persons. "life in S.O.N -> nasty, brutish &
Want peace and security
Make contracts to live under strong sovereigns -> any kind of sovereign, even bad dictators
are better than "S.O.N" -> (S.O.N is semi mythical, no one knows…

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1. Plato
3 characteristics => Reason, Spirit, Desire
Reason is used to use strength of will (spirit) to repress desire
This stops us from being like animals and makes us human
Example => recovering alcoholic -> uses reason to suggest that drinking alcohol is bad.
However, their body may crave…


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