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What is concentration?
The concentration of a solution is a measure of how much
solute is dissolved per unit of solvent.
Concentration (c) = amount of solute (n) / volume of solvent (v
amount of solute is measured in moles (mol)
volume of solvent is measured in dm3
concentration is measured in mol dm-3.
Volumes are often expressed in cm3, so a more useful
equation includes a conversion from cm3 to dm3.
concentration = (no. moles × 1000) / volume
mol dm3 cm3
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Concentration, moles and volume
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Concentration calculations
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Balancing equations
An important principle in chemical reactions is that matter cannot be created or
destroyed. It is important that symbol equations are balanced.
A balanced equation has the same number of each type of atom on each side of
the equation.
Unbalanced: Na + Cl2 NaCl
1 sodium 2 chlorine 1 sodium 1 chlorine
Balanced: 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl
2 sodium 2 chlorine 2 sodium 2 chlorine
This shows that two moles of sodium react with one mole of chlorine to make
two moles of sodium chloride.
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