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Nature of the judiciary
Roles and responsibilities
Political role
Legality and constitutional environment
Civil liberties
Human rights
Government and judiciary
Upper levels of the judiciary
Strengths and weaknesses of the judiciary
Some key terms…read more

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Nature of the judiciary
The judiciary is one of the 3 branches of
All officials concerned with the dispensation of
Judges involved directly with law making and
politics…read more

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Roles and responsibilities
Post Type of post holder Main duties
Lay magistrates Part-time Minor criminal cases
Not legally qualified
Stipendiary magistrates Full time lawyers Minor criminal cases in larger cities
Circuit/crown court judges Full time judges More serious criminal cases
Mainly former barristers
Tribunal officials Lawyers Specialists
Experts in a particular tribunal field
High Court judges Senior judges Appeals
Judicial review
Appeal courts Very senior judges Appeals from lower courts
Supreme court Most senor 12 judges Major disputes
Cases can also be taken to the European Court of
Human Rights or European Court of Justice if suitable…read more

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Political role
Dispensing justice Interpretation Creating case law Declaring common
ensuring that the interpreting the how existing laws law
law is applied fairly meaning of law are applied to a rules of behaviour
and equally to all where there is particular case developed through
citizens conflict tradition rather than
Judicial review Public inquiries External jurisdiction Sentencing issues
the principle that into matters of constraints by legal
citizens can appeal widespread public systems of the EU
against the concern and devolved
government to powers
assert their rights…read more

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Examples of public inquiries
Bingham Inquiry, 1992 Collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce
(BCCI) gave concerns about the failure of the
Bank of England to regulate foreign-owned
Scott Inquiry, 1996 British government apparently changed the
rules on the sale of arms to Iraq without making
the matter public
Phillips Inquiry, 1998 Inquiry into the government's handling of the
outbreak of BSE in the UK
Macpherson Inquiry, 1999 Inquiry into the killing of black teenager
Stephen Lawrence by a gang of white youths
and how the police handled the case
Hutton Inquiry, 2003 Inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the
apparent suicide of David Kelly
Laming Inquiry, 2000 Inquiry into the death of Victoria Climbie and
the handling of the case by social
services/police etc.…read more

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