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and Energy

Module 2: Excretion

Introductions
Excretion is the removal of metabolic waste from the body that is the removal, from the body, of by
products or unwanted substances from normal cell processes.

Two products that are made in very large amounts such as CO2 and nitrogen containing compounds
such…

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One of the other functions of the liver is the production

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of bile. This is released into the bile caniculous which then joins together to form bile duct which
transport bile to the gall bladder.

Liver cells
Hepatocytes appear to be relatively unspecialised. They have a simple cuboidal shape with microvilli.
But there functions include protein synthesis, transformation and storage of…

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Detoxification of alcohol

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Brocken down by ethanol dehydrogenase. From ethanol makes entahnal then makes acetyl
coenzyme a which enters into the process of respiration.




The Kidney

The structure of the kidney




The kidney nephron




Ultrafiltration
Blood flows into glomerulus from afferent arteriole which is larger than the efferent arteriole. The
pressure in the…

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to be forced into capsule.

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Adaptation to allow ultrafiltration:

Endothelium have narrow gaps between them.
Basement membrane consists of fine mesh of collagen fibres and act as a filter.
Podocytes ensure there are gaps between cells and fluid from blood can pass between the
cells.

What is filtered out of the blood?
Water
Amino acids…

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