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Module 2: Excretion
Excretion is the removal of metabolic waste from the body that is the removal, from the body, of by
products or unwanted substances from normal cell processes.
Two products that are made in very large amounts such as CO2 and nitrogen containing compounds
such as urea. Carbon dioxide is produced by every living cell in the body as a result of respiration.
Urea is produced in the liver from excess amino acids.…read more

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One of the other functions of the liver is the production…read more

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This is released into the bile caniculous which then joins together to form bile duct which
transport bile to the gall bladder.
Liver cells
Hepatocytes appear to be relatively unspecialised. They have a simple cuboidal shape with microvilli.
But there functions include protein synthesis, transformation and storage of carbohydrate. Synthesis
of cholesterol, detoxification and many other processes.
Kupffer cells
Specialised macrophages. Move around in the sinusoid and are involved in the breakdown and
recycling of old red blood cells.…read more

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Detoxification of alcohol…read more

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Brocken down by ethanol dehydrogenase. From ethanol makes entahnal then makes acetyl
coenzyme a which enters into the process of respiration.
The Kidney
The structure of the kidney
The kidney nephron
Blood flows into glomerulus from afferent arteriole which is larger than the efferent arteriole. The
pressure in the glomerulus is high than in the Bowman's capsule.…read more

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Adaptation to allow ultrafiltration:
Endothelium have narrow gaps between them.
Basement membrane consists of fine mesh of collagen fibres and act as a filter.
Podocytes ensure there are gaps between cells and fluid from blood can pass between the
What is filtered out of the blood?
Amino acids
Inorganic ions
What is left in the capillary?
Selective reabsorption
Reabsorption occurs mainly in the proximal convoluted tubule. All the glucose, amino acids and some
salts are reabsorbed along with some water.…read more


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