Mitosis

Notes on each of the stages of mitosis and images to help identify each stage

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MITOSIS
Cell division in which where the daughter cells produced are completely identical to the parent
cell
INTERPHASE:
The phase in cell division where all organelles and DNA are replicated through G1, S and G2. S
in the cell cycle is the point at which identical DNA is synthesised.
The nuclear envelope is still in-tact at this point
PROPHASE:
At this point, the chromosomes condense, becoming shorter in length with each being in the
form of 2 stranded chromatids, and are visible under the microscope as the nuclear envelope
disintegrates at the end of the stage
Chromatids are essentially 2 identical chromosomes, with the exact same genetic material
attached at one point called the centromere
Microtubules from the cytoplasm form the 3-D structure of the spindle
Centrioles move themselves around the nuclear envelope to polar opposite sides of the cell
in order to form the two poles of the spindle fibres.

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METAPHASE:
The centromeres of the chromosomes attach to the euquator (the widest part of the spindle)
of the spindle fibres
ANAPHASE
The centromeres of the chromatids split at this point in cell division as the spindle fibres
shorten pulling the two halves in opposite directions
This stage ends once each half of the chromatids remain at polar opposites of the cell and the
spindle breaks down…read more

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TELOPHASE:
This is the final stage of mitotic division
Chromosomes unravel and the nuclear envelope reforms as the 2 sets of genetic material
become enclosed in separate nuclei
CYTOPLASMIC DIVISION:
In animal cells, the cell surface membrane pinches and contstricts around the centre of the
cell
A protein filament ring bound to the interior of the surface of the cell contracts until the cell is
divided into two new cells
It is theorised that the two proteins actin and myosin which are responsible for muscle…read more

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