# Milgram experiment part 1, eval in separate document.

from class notes and flanagan book

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• Created by: Emma
• Created on: 09-12-12 18:26

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Obedience to authority.
This is where they choose to obey someone of higher status.
Milgrim wanted to test whether they would obey authority
even if it's destructive. Its seems illogical to obey this type of
order so Milgrim wanted to test it.
Procedures: 40 male participants, recruited by advertising an experiment to see affect of
punishment on learning. (AO2 gender bias, deception,small sample) they were also told they
would be paid even if they leave.
There was 1 real participant, 2 confederates (AO2 deception).
Confederates play as experimenter and learner.
Participant always drew teacher when picking one of the roles from mystery
papers.(AO2 deception)
He was told to give increasingly strong electric shocks to the learner when they got
They were given a shock to show it worked.
Learner gave mostly wrong answers, was silent till 300 volts.
He then pounded on the wall and yelled and stopped answering.
Repeated the same actions at 315 volts.
After 315 did nothing.
If the teacher asked to stop, the experimenter would ask them to continue by saying
things such as `it is essential you continue'
Findings- before the experiment he asked psychologist, students, and colleagues to predict
how it would result: they predicted all would refuse, only 4% would reach 300 volts, 1 in
1000 would reach 450 volts.
Actual results-65% reached 450 volts; all reached 300 volts, 5 stopped when learner
objected.
Conclusion-
Shows people are obedient even if its inhumane
Not just evil people but normal people will follow orders
Crimes against humanity can be argued to be situational.
Individual's capacity for making decision is suspended when they find themselves in a
subordinate position within a powerful social hierarchy.
E.g. teacher-experimenter.
Variations- 18 in total but 4 you need to know.
1)Proximity to victim- they were in the same room.

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Here's a taster:

Original: 62.5% obedient
This variation: 40% obedient (possibly because they could see the learners anguish
Similar variation is where they held their hand to the shock plate: 30% to 270 volts.
2) proximity to the authority figure:
Original- experimenter sat a few inches away, constantly monitoring,
Variation-experimenter left the room, communicated via telephone-
more defied
Only 21% carried on to full shock, some gave weaker shocks than they
were
Meant to, and lying to the experimenter.…read more