Metallic Bonding

Chemistry Edexcel Unit 1

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Metallic bonding
Cations arranged in a lattice surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons
Strength of metallic bonds depends on:
Charge of metal ion (equal to number of delocalised electrons)
Metallic radius bigger radius = weaker bond
Structure of metallic lattice body-centred cubic or face-centred cubic
Density and melting temperature:
Group 1 low
Group 2 smaller metallic radius, higher charge so denser, higher melting point
D-block elements denser and higher melting point than group 2
Electrical conductivity sea of electrons free moving so all metallic bonded compounds
conduct electricity
Thermal conductivity good conductors because free-moving electrons pass kinetic energy
along the metal
Malleability layers of positive ions can slide over each other because of the delocalised
electrons so metals are malleable
Ionisation energies for metals smaller than those for non-metals because the nuclear charge
is smaller
Lowest electronegativities electronegativity decreases down a group and increases
across a period
Low values of first ionisation energies metals form positive ions for ionic bonding or
hydration
Metal + acid salt + hydrogen
Metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen
More reactive metals displace less reactive ones

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